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1.  Removal of PCDD/Fs and PCBs from flue gas using a pilot gas cleaning system  
   Xiaoqing Lin  Yuqi Jin  Hailong Wu  Tong Chen  Xiaodong Li  Shengyong Lu  Xuguang Jiang  Jianhua Yan《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2013年第25卷第9期
   A 100 Nm3 /hr capacity pilot scale dual bag filter (DBF) system was tested on the flue gas from an actual hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), the removal efficiency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was also studied. The first filter collected most of the fly ash and associated chlorinated organic; then activated carbon (AC) was injected and used to collect phase chlorinated organic from the gas. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs after the DBF system were 0.07 and 0.01 ng TEQ/Nm3 , respectively, which were both far below the national emission standard. Comparing with the original single bag filter system, the PCDD/Fs concentration dropped a lot from 0.36 to 0.07 ng TEQ/Nm3 . Increasing AC feeding rate enhanced their collection efficiency, yet reduced the AC utilization efficiency, and it still needs further study to select an appropriate feeding rate in the system. These results will be useful for industrial application and assist in controlling emissions of PCDD/Fs and other persistent organic pollutions from stationary sources in China.    

2.  Performance of biotrickling filters packed with structured or cubicpolyurethane sponges for VOC removal  
   Chunping Yang  Guanlong Yu  Guangming Zeng  Haining Yang  Fayuan Chen  Congying Jin《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2011年第23卷第8期
   Two identical bench-scale biotrickling filters (BTFs), BTF 1 and BTF 2, were evaluated for toluene removal at various gas empty bedcontact times (EBCTs) and organic loadings. BTF 1 and BTF 2 were packed with structured and cubic synthetic polyurethane sponges,respectively. At a constant toluene loading of 16 g/(m3 hr), toluene removal efficiencies decreased from 98.8% to 64.3% for BTF 1and from 98.4% to 74.1% for BTF 2 as gas EBCT decreased from 30 to 5 sec. When the toluene loading increased from 35 to 140g/(m3 hr) at a gas EBCT of 30 sec, the removal efficiencies decreased from 99.1% to 77.4% for BTF 1 and from 99.0% to 81.5% forBTF 2. The pressure drop for both BTFs increased with increased air flow rate, and did not significantly vary while the toluene loadingwas increased under similar operation conditions. BTF 1 and BTF 2 could start up successfully within 19 and 27 days, respectively,when packed with fresh sponge media, and the performances could be restored in 3–7 days after biomass was removed and wastedfrom the media. BTF 2 displayed higher removal efficiency even under shorter EBCT or higher loading rate than BTF1 when otheroperation conditions were similar, while it showed lower pressure drop than BTF 1 during the whole period of operation. These resultsdemonstrated that both BTFs could treat waste gas containing toluene effectively.    

3.  Hierarchical Ag-SiO2@Fe3O4 magnetic composites for elemental mercury removal from non-ferrous metal smelting flue gas  
   Yongpeng M  Bailong Mu  Xiaojing Zhang  Hongzhong Zhang  Haomiao Xu  Zan Qu  Li Gao《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2019年第31卷第5期
   Hierarchical Ag-SiO_2@Fe_3O_4 magnetic composites were selected for elemental mercury(Hg~0) removal from non-ferrous metal smelting flue gas in this study. Results showed that the hierarchical Ag-SiO_2@Fe_3O_4 magnetic composites had favorable Hg~0 removal ability at low temperature. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of hierarchical magnetic composite is much larger than that of pure Fe_3O_4 and SiO_2@Fe_3O_4. The Hg~0 removal efficiency reached the highest value as approximately 92% under the reaction temperature of 150°C, while the removal efficiency sharply reduced in the absence of O_2. The characterization results indicated that Ag nanoparticles grew on the surface of SiO_2@Fe_3O_4 support. The large surface area of SiO_2 supplied efficient reaction room for Hg and Ag atoms. Ag–Hg amalgam is generated on the surface of the composites. In addition, this magnetic material could be easily separated from fly ashes when adopted for treating real flue gas, and the spent materials could be regenerated using a simple thermal-desorption method.    

4.  Experimental study on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification based on highly active absorbent  被引次数:1
   ZHAO Yi  XU Pei-yao  FU Dong  HUANG Jian-jun  YU Huan-huan《Journal of environmental sciences (China)》,2006年第18卷第2期
   Simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO from flue gas by the highly active absorbent prepared from fly ash, lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive was studied using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) under different experimental conditions. The effects influencing the removal effiencies were discussed. The optimal flue gas temperature, flue gas humidity, gas velocity of CFB and Ca/(S+N) molar ratio with this process were approximately 110℃, 6%, 1.8 m/s and 1.05, respectively. Removal efficiencies of 92.3% for SO2 and 60.88% for NO were obtained under the optimal experimental conditions. While the spent absorbent appeared in the form of dry powder, the mechanism of removal for SO2 and NO based on the highly active absorbent was investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis methods. The valuable references can be provided for industrial application by the process. The foreground of application will be vast in China and in the world.    

5.  Decomposition characteristics of toluene by a corona radical shower system  被引次数:1
   WU Zu-liang  GAO Xiang  LUO Zhong-yang  NI Ming-jiang  CEN Ke-fa《Journal of environmental sciences (China)》,2004年第16卷第4期
   Non-thermal plasma technologies offer an innovative approach to decomposing various volatile organic compounds(VOCs). The decomposition of toluene from simulated flue gas was investigated using a pipe electrode with nozzles for the generation of free radicals. Corona characteristics and decomposition of toluene were investigated experimentally. In addition, the decomposition mechanism of toluene was explored in view of reaction rate. The experimental results showed that the humidity of additional gas has an important effect on corona characteristics and modes and stable streamer corona can be generated through optimizing flow rate and humidity of additional gas. Applied voltage, concentration of toluene, humidity of toluene and resident time are some important factors affecting decomposition efficiency. Under optimizing conditions, the decomposition efficiency of toluene can reach 80%. These results can give a conclusion that the corona radical shower technology is feasible and effective on the removal of toluene in the flue gas.    

6.  Control of diesel soot and NOx emissions with a particulate trap and EGR  
   LIU Rui-xiang  GAO Xi-yan  YANG De-sheng  XU Xiao-guang《Journal of environmental sciences (China)》,2005年第17卷第2期
   The exhaust gas recirculation(EGR), coupled with a high-collection efficiency particulate trap to simultaneously control smoke and NOx emissions from diesel engines were studied. This ceramic trap developed previously provided the soot cleaning efficiency of 99%, the regeneration efficiency reaches 80% and the ratio of success reaches 97%, which make EGR used in diesel possible. At the presence of EGR, opening of the regeneration control valve of the trap was over again optimized to compensate for the decrease of the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas resulted from EGR. The results indicated the cleaning efficiency and regeneration performance of the trap were maintained at the same level except that the back pressure increased faster. A new EGR system was developed, which is based on a wide range oxygen(UEGO) sensor. Experiments were carded out under steady state conditions while maintaining the engine speed at 1600 r/min, setting the engine loads at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%respectively. Throughout each test the EGR rate was kept at nine different settings and data were taken with the gas analyzer and UEGO sensor. Then, the EGR rate and engine load maps, which showed the tendencies of NOx, CO and HC emissions from diesel engine,were made using the measured data. Using the maps, the author set up the EGR regulation, the relationship between the optimal amounts of EGR flow and the equivalence ratio, σ, where σ = 14.5/AFR.    

7.  Formaldehyde degradation by UV/TiO2/O3 process using continuous flow mode  
   QI Hong  SUN De-zhi  CHI Guo-qing《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2007年第19卷第9期
   The degradation of formaldehyde gas was studied using UV/TiO2/O3 process under the condition of continuous flow mode. The effects of humidity, initial formaldehyde concentration, residence time and ozone adding amount on degradation of formaldehyde gas were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the combination of ozonation with photocatalytic oxidation on the degradation of formaldehyde showed a synergetic action, e.g,, it could considerably increase decomposing of formaldehyde. The degradation efficiency of formaldehyde was between 73.6% and 79.4% while the initial concentration in the range of 1.84--24 mg/m^3 by O3/TiO2flJV process. The optimal humidity was about 50% in UV/TiO2/O3 processs and degradation of formaldehyde increases from 39.0% to 94.1% when the ozone content increased from 0 to 141 mg/m^3. Furthermore, the kinetics of formaldehyde degradation reaction could be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The rate constant k of 46.72 mg/(m^3.min) and Langmuir adsorption coefficient K of 0.0268 m^3/mg were obtained.    

8.  Effect of ozone injection on the long-term performance and microbial community structure of a VOCs biofilter  
   Prakit Saingam  Zenab Baig  Yang Xu  Jinying Xi《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2018年第30卷第7期
   For biofilters treating waste gases containing volatile organic compounds(VOCs), biomass accumulation is a common problem which will induce bed clogging and significant decrease in VOCs removal efficiency during long-term operation. In this study, ozone injection was developed as a biomass control strategy, and its effects on the biofilter performance and the microbial community structure were investigated in long-term operation. Two biofilters,identified as BF1 and BF2, were operated continuously for 160 days treating gaseous toluene under the same conditions, except that 200 mg/m3 ozone was continuously injected into BF1 during days 45–160. During the operation period, ozone injection did not change the toluene removal efficiency, while the pressure drop of BF1 with ozone injection was significantly lowered compared with BF2. The wet biomass accumulation rate of BF1 was 11 g/m~3/hr, which was only46% of that in BF2. According to the carbon balance result, ozone injection also increased the toluene mineralization rate from 83% to 91%, which could be an important reason for the low biomass accumulation. The PMA-q PCR result indicated that ozone injection increased the microbial viability of the biofilm. The high-throughput sequencing result also revealed that the dominant phyla and genera were not changed significantly by ozone injection, but some ozonetolerant genera such as Rhodanobacter, Dokdonella and Rhodococcus were enhanced by ozone exposure. All the results verified that ozone injection is capable of sustaining the long-term performance of biofilters by lowering the biomass accumulation, increasing the microbial viability and changing the microbial community structure.    

9.  Low SO2 emission from CFB co-firing MSW and bituminous  被引次数:1
   LU Qing-gang  LI Zhi-wei  NA Yong-jie  BAO Shao-lin  SUN Yun-kai  HE Jun《Journal of environmental sciences (China)》,2004年第16卷第5期
   Influence of co-firing rate on SO2 emission from co-firing municipal solid waste(MSW) and bituminous containing high amount of sulfur(1.79%) was studied in a 0.15 MWt circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The temperature selected is 1123 K, typical for MSW incineration using CFB. The particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the alkali metal concentration and sulfate concentration in the recirculating ash and fly ash, and flue gas composition were determined. The results showed that the addition of MSW leads to a significant decrease in SO2 emission. Concentration of SO2 in flue gas decreased to 0 with the co-firing rate greater than 51%. This reduction in SO2 emission is attributed both to the high particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the high content of alkali metals in the bed material, and to the comparatively high concentration of HCI in flue gas during co-firing of MSW and bituminous.    

10.  Performance of rotating drum biofilter for volatile organic compound removal at high organic loading rates  
   YANG Chunping  CHEN Hong  ZENG Guangming  ZHU Xueqing  SUIDAN Makram T《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2008年第20卷第3期
   Uneven distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biomass, and excess biomass accumulation in some biofilters hinder the application of biofiltration technology. An innovative multilayer rotating drum biofilter (RDB) was developed to correct these problems. The RDB was operated at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 30 s and a rotational rate of 1.0 r/min. Diethyl ether was chosen as the model VOC. Performance of the RDB was evaluated at organic loading rates of 32,1, 64.2, 128, and 256 g ether/(m^3·h) (16.06 g ether/(m^3·h) ≈ 1.0 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m^3·d)). The EBCT and organic loading rates were recorded on the basis of the medium volume. Results show that the ether removal efficiency decreased with an increased VOC loading rate. Ether removal efficiencies exceeding 99% were achieved without biomass control even at a high VOC loading rate of 128 g ether/(m^3·h). However, when the VOC loading rate was increased to 256 g ether/(m^3·h), the average removal efficiency dropped to 43%. Nutrient limitation possibly contributed to the drop in ether removal efficiency. High biomass accumulation rate was also observed in the medium at the two higher ether loading rates, and removal of the excess biomass in the media was necessary to maintain stable performance. This work showed that the RDB is effective in the removal of diethyl ether from waste gas streams even at high organic loading rates. The results might help establish criteria for designing and operating RDBs.    

11.  Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas  
   Dekui Li  Jieru Han  Lina Han  Jiancheng Wang  Liping Chang《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2014年第26卷第7期
   Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon(AC) for H2 S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H2 S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction(XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N2-H2S-H2-CO-Hg atmosphere(simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N2-H2S-Hg and N2-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H2 and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N2-H2S-Hg and N2-Hg atmospheres.    

12.  A nanofilter composed of carbon nanotube-silver composites for virus removal and antibacterial activity improvement  
   Jun Pyo Kim  Jae Ha Kim  Jieun Kim  Soo No Lee  Han-Oh Park《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2016年第28卷第4期
   We have developed a new nanofilter using a carbon nanotube-silver composite material that is capable of efficiently removing waterborne viruses and bacteria.The nanofilter was subjected to plasma surface treatment to enhance its flow rate,which was improved by approximately 62%.Nanoscale pores were obtained by fabricating a carbon nanotube network and using nanoparticle fixation technology for the removal of viruses.The pore size of the nanofilter was approximately 38 nm and the measured flow rate ranged from 21.0 to 97.2 L/(min·m~2)under a pressure of 1–6 kgf/cm~2 when the amount of loaded carbon nanotube-silver composite was 1.0 mg/cm~2.The nanofilter was tested against Polio-,Noro-,and Coxsackie viruses using a sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect the presence of viral particles within the outflow.No trace of viruses was found to flow through the nanofilter with carbon nanotube-silver composite loaded above 0.8 mg/cm~2.Moreover,the surface of the filter has antibacterial properties to prevent bacterial clogging due to the presence of 20-nm silver nanoparticles,which were synthesized on the carbon nanotube surface.    

13.  Enhanced methane production in an anaerobic digestion and microbial electrolysis cell coupled system with co-cultivation of Geobacter and Methanosarcina  
   Qi Yin  Xiaoyu Zhu  Guoqiang Zhan  Tao Bo  Yanfei Yang  Yong Tao  Xiaohong He  Daping Li  Zhiying Yan《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2016年第28卷第4期
   The anaerobic digestion(AD)and microbial electrolysis cell(MEC)coupled system has been proved to be a promising process for biomethane production.In this paper,it was found that by co-cultivating Geobacter with Methanosarcina in an AD–MEC coupled system,methane yield was further increased by 24.1%,achieving to 360.2 m L/g-COD,which was comparable to the theoretical methane yield of an anaerobic digester.With the presence of Geobacter,the maximum chemical oxygen demand(COD)removal rate(216.8 mg COD/(L·hr))and current density(304.3 A/m3)were both increased by 1.3 and 1.8 fold compared to the previous study without Geobacter,resulting in overall energy efficiency reaching up to 74.6%.Community analysis demonstrated that Geobacter and Methanosarcina could coexist together in the biofilm,and the electrochemical activities of both were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry.Our study observed that the carbon dioxide content in total gas generated from the AD reactor with Geobacter was only half of that generated from the same reactor without Geobacter,suggesting that Methanosarcina may obtain the electron transferred from Geobacter for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane.Taken together,Geobacter not only can improve the performance of the MEC system,but also can enhance methane production.    

14.  Operating condition influences on PCDD/Fs emissions from sinter pot tests with hot flue gas recycling  
   Yongmei Yu  Minghui Zheng  Xianwei Li  Xiaolei He《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2012年第24卷第5期
   This study was designed to clarify the influence of operating conditions on the formation and emissions of polychlorinated-pdibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from a sintering process with hot flue gas recycling. A pilot scale sinter pot with simulated flue gas recycling was developed, and four key operational parameters, including temperature, oxygen content of the simulated waste flue gas, the coke rate of the sintering mixture, and the quicklime quality, were selected for exploring PCDD/Fs formation. The results showed that the temperature of the recycled flue gas had a major affect on PCDD/Fs formation, and a high temperature could significantly increase their formation during sintering. A clear linear correlation between the temperature of recycling flue gas and PCDD/Fs emission (r = 0.93) was found. PCDD/Fs could be reduced to a certain extent by decreasing the level of oxygen in the recycled flue gas, while sintering quality was unchanged. The coke rate had no significant influence on the formation of PCDD/Fs, but the quality of quicklime used in the sintering mixture could affect not only the amount of PCDD/Fs emissions but also the sintering productivity. Compared with a benchmark sinter pot test, PCDD/Fs emissions markedly decreased with improvements to quicklime quality. However, the reduction in PCDD/Fs emissions realized by using high-quality quicklime was limited by the temperature of the inlet gas. The highest reduction achieved was 51% compared with conventional quicklime when the temperature of the inlet gas was 150°C.    

15.  Characteristics of NO reduction with non-thermal plasma  被引次数:8
   YU Gang  YU Qi  JIANG Yan-long  ZENG Ke-si《Journal of environmental sciences (China)》,2005年第17卷第4期
   As a new type of NO removal system, NO reduction in N2-NO plasma was applied to solve the difficulties in the traditional methods, such as higher energy-consumption, larger equipment size and high cost, and so on. Using the experimental NO reduction system with single-pair electrode tip discharge structure, the NO reduction characteristics of N~-NO system were revealed to guide the engineering practice; the results of NO reduction with single-pair electrode tip discharge plasma also have the same instructive meaning to the NO reduction with multi-pair electrode tip discharge plasma. The amount of both active N atom and NO removal rate increased with the distance /g increasing between the two electrode tips and then dropped when the distance exceeded a certain value. The NO removal rate increased while the voltage between two electrode tips or the resident time of gas flow increased. The distance is a key geometrical variable factor that can determine the intensity of electric field between two electrode tips and the resident time of gas. In this paper, the effects of the dielectric features on NO reduction using dielectric-barrier discharge plasma system were also studied. The results of NO removal rate with different dielectrics such as Al2O3, CaO. MgO and glass showed that the electric field intensity is different with different dielectric, because it brings different energy to particles in discharge room and thus it causes different NO removal rate.    

16.  Pollutant emission characteristics of rice husk combustion in a vortexing fluidized bed incinerator  
   Feng Duan  Chiensong Chyang  Yucheng Chin  Jim Tso《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2013年第25卷第2期
   Rice husk with high volatile content was burned in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed incinerator. The fluidized bed incinerator was constructed of 6 mm stainless steel with 0.45 m in diameter and 5 m in height. The emission characteristics of CO, NO, and SO2 were studied. The effects of operating parameters, such as primary air flow rate, secondary air flow rate, and excess air ratio on the pollutant emissions were also investigated. The results show that a large proportion of combustion occurs at the bed surface and the freeboard zone. The SO2 concentration in the flue gas decreases with increasing excess air ratio, while the NOx concentration shows reverse trend. The flow rate of secondary air has a significant impact on the CO emission. For a fixed primary air flowrate, CO emission decreases with the secondary air flowrate. For a fixed excess air ratio, CO emission decreases with the ratio of secondary to primary air flow. The minimum CO emission of 72 ppm is attained at the operating condition of 40% excess air ratio and 0.6 partition air ratio. The NOx and SO2 concentrations in the flue gas at this condition are 159 and 36 ppm, which conform to the EPA regulation of Taiwan.    

17.  Characteristics of volatile compounds removal in biogas slurry of pig manure by ozone oxidation and organic solvents extraction  
   Yujun Wang  Lianshuang Feng  Xiaosong Zhao  Xiulan M  Jingmin Yang  Huiqing Liu  Sen Dou  Miping Zhou  Zhonglei Xie《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2013年第25卷第9期
   Biogas slurry is not suitable for liquid fertilizer due to its high amounts of volatile materials being of complicated composition and peculiar smell. In order to remove volatiles from biogas slurry efficiently, the dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to clear the composition of volatiles. Nitrogen stripping and superfluous ozone were also used to remove volatiles from biogas slurry. The results showed that there were 21 kinds of volatile compounds in the biogas slurry, including sulfur compounds, organic amines, benzene, halogen generation of hydrocarbons and alkanes, some of which had strong peculiar smell. The volatile compounds in biogas slurry can be removed with the rate of 53.0% by nitrogen stripping and with rate of 81.7% by the oxidization and stripping of the superfluous ozone. On this basis, the removal rate of the volatile compounds reached 99.2% by chloroform and n-hexane extraction, and almost all of odor was eliminated. The contents of some dissolved organic compounds decreased obviously and however main plant nutrients had no significant change in the biogas slurry after being treated.    

18.  Mercury removal from coal combustion flue gas by modified fly ash  
   Wenqing Xu  Hairui Wang  Tingyu Zhu  Junyan Kuang  Pengfei Jing《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2013年第25卷第2期
   Fly ash is a potential alternative to activated carbon for mercury adsorption. The effects of physicochemical properties on the mercury adsorption performance of three fly ash samples were investigated. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and other methods were used to characterize the samples. Results indicate that mercury adsorption on fly ash is primarily physisorption and chemisorption. High specific surface areas and small pore diameters are beneficial to efficient mercury removal. Incompletely burned carbon is also an important factor for the improvement of mercury removal efficiency, in particular. The C-M bond, which is formed by the reaction of C and Ti, Si and other elements, may improve mercury oxidation. The samples modified with CuBr2 , CuCl 2 and FeCl3 showed excellent performance for Hg removal, because the chlorine in metal chlorides acts as an oxidant that promotes the conversion of elemental mercury (Hg0) into its oxidized form (Hg2+). Cu2+ and Fe3+ can also promote Hg 0 oxidation as catalysts. HCl and O2 promote the adsorption of Hg by modified fly ash, whereas SO2 inhibits the Hg adsorption because of competitive adsorption for active sites. Fly ash samples modified with CuBr2 , CuCl2 and FeCl3 are therefore promising materials for controlling mercury emissions.    

19.  Removal of non-point pollutants from bridge runoff by a hydrocyclone using natural water head  
   Jianghua Yu  Yeonseok Kim  Youngchul Kim《Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering》,2013年第7卷第6期
   A hydrocyclone using natural water head provided by bridge was operated for the treatment of stormwater runoff. The hydrocyclone was automatically controlled using electronic valve which is connected to a pressure meter. Normally the hydrocyclone was open during dry days, but it was closed after the capture of the first flush. The results indicated that the average pressure and the flow rate were directly affected by the rainfall intensity. The pressure head was more than 2 m when the rainfall intensity was above 5mm·h^-1. The percentage volume of underflow with high solids concentration decreased as the pressure and flow rate increased, but the percentage volume of overflow with almost no solids showed the opposite behavior. The total suspended solids (TSS) concentration ratio between the overflow and inflow (TSSover/TSSin) decreased as a function of the operational pressure, while the corresponding ratio of underflow to inflow (TSSunaer/TSSi,) increased. The TSS separation efficiency was evaluated based on a mass balance. It ranged from 25% to 99% with the pressure head ranging from 1.4 to 9.7 m, and it was proportional to pressure and flow rate. Normally, the efficiency was more than 50% when the pressure was higher than 2 m. The analysis of the water budget indicated that around 13% of the total runoff was captured by the hydrocyclone as a first flush, and this runoff was separated as underflow and overflow with the respective percentage volumes of 29% and 71%. The pollutants budget was also examined based on a mass balance. The results showed that the percentage of TSS, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in underflow were 73%, 59%, 7.6%, and 49%, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that the hydrocyclone worked well. It separated the first flush as solids-concentrated underflow and solids-absent overflow, and effectively reduced the runoff volume needing further treatment. Finally, four types of optional post treatment design are presented and compared.    

20.  Removal of sulfamethazine antibiotics by aerobic sludge and an isolated Achromobacter sp. S-3  
   Manhong Huang  Shixuan Tian  Donghui Chen  Wei Zhang  Jun Wu  Liang Chen《环境科学学报(英文版)》,2012年第24卷第9期
   Removal characteristics of sulfamethazine (SMZ) by sludge and a bacterial strain using an aerobic sequence batch reactor (ASBR) were studied. Operating conditions were optimized by varying the reaction time and sludge retention time (SRT). An Achromobacter sp. (S-3) with the ability to remove SMZ was isolated from the ASBR. The effects of different operating parameters (pH and temperature) on the biodegradation of SMZ by S-3 were determined. The results indicate that, between 0.5 and 4 hr, reaction time of the ASBR had a significant effect on the SMZ removal efficiency in the system. The SMZ removal efficiency also increased from 45% to 80% when SRT was prolonged from 5 to 25 days, although longer SRT had no impact on SMZ removal. The SMZ adsorption rate decreased with increasing temperature, which fitted Freundlich isotherm well. The removal of SMZ in the ASBR was due to the combined effects of adsorption and degradation, and degradation played a leading role.    

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