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1.
This paper analyzes characteristics, major driving forces and alternative management measures of land-use change in Kunshan, Jiangsu province, China. The study used remote sensing (RS) maps and socio-economic data. Based on RS-derived maps, two change matrices were constructed for detecting land-use change between 1987 and 1994, and between 1994 and 2000 through pixel-to-pixel comparisons. The outcomes indicated that paddy fields, dryland, and forested land moderately decreased by 8.2%, 29% and 2.6% from 1987 to 1994, and by 4.1%, 7.6% and 8% from 1994 to 2000, respectively. In contrast, the following increased greatly from 1987 to 1994: artificial ponds by 48%, urban settlements by 87.6%, rural settlements by 41.1%, and construction land by 511.8%. From 1994 to 2000, these land covers increased by 3.6%, 28.1%, 23.4% and 47.1%, respectively. For the whole area, fragmentation of land cover was very significant. In addition, socio-economic data were used to analyze major driving forces triggering land-use change through bivariate analysis. The results indicated that industrialization, urbanization, population growth, and China's economic reform measures are four major driving forces contributing to land-use change in Kunshan. Finally, we introduced some possible management measures such as urban growth boundary (UGB) and incentive-based policies. We pointed out that, given the rapidity of the observed changes, it is critical that additional studies be undertaken to evaluate these suggested policies, focusing on what their effects might be in this region, and how these might be implemented.  相似文献
2.
Land Use/Cover Changes, the Environment and Water Resources in Northeast China   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
Land use/cover in Northeast China went through extensive changes during the 1990s. This report explores the interaction between these changes and the environment, and the implication of these changes for rational allocation of water resources. Two maps of land use/cover produced from 1990 and 2000 Landsat TM satellite images were overlaid in ArcInfo to reveal changes in land cover. Results indicate that farmland and grassland decreased by 386,195 and 140,075 ha, respectively, while water, built-up areas, and woodland increased by 238,596, 194,231, and 192,682 ha, respectively. These changes bore a mutual relationship with the environmental change. On the one hand, climate warming made some of these changes (e.g., conversion of woodland and grassland to farmland) possible. On the other hand, the changed surface cover modified the local climate. These changes, in turn, caused severe environmental degradation and increased flooding. The change between dry field and rice paddy, in particular, raised severe implications for the proper allocation of limited water resources in the Northeast. Efforts are needed to coordinate their rational allocation to reap maximum and sustainable return over the entire area, not just in some localities. Results obtained in this study should be of interest to the international audience of Environmental Management in that they highlight the interactive nature of human activities and the environment and the off-site impact of these activities on the environment.  相似文献
3.
中国盾叶薯蓣资源现状及保护对策   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
论述了我国盾叶薯蓣的野生资源现状、人工种植生产现状、资源濒危原因及应采取的保护对策.指出:我国现有盾叶薯蓣野生资源蕴藏量估计在200万kg左右,资源数量已大为下降,然而年需求量却高达2亿kg以上,供需矛盾十分突出.造成资源濒危的主要原因是利用过度、生境及种质资源被破坏、家种者皂素含量低且质量差而不能大批量用于皂素生产.建议在采取有效保护野生资源的同时,尽快建立全国性良种繁育基地,按GAP要求建立我国现代化、规模化、规范化的高产优质药材原料生产基地,从根本上解决当前盾叶薯蓣资源保护与利用的矛盾.  相似文献
4.
我国烟气脱硫技术进展   总被引:13,自引:1,他引:12  
概述了我国烟气脱硫技术应用和研究开发进展,对发展中国式烟气脱硫道路提出了建议。  相似文献
5.
A methodology is developed to relate urban growth studies to distributed hydrological modeling using an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS. This linkage is possible because both studies share land-use and land-cover data. Landsat Thematic Mapper data are utilized to detect urban land-cover changes. GIS analyses are then conducted to examine the changing spatial patterns of urban growth. The integration of remote sensing and GIS is applied to automate the estimation of surface runoff based on the Soil Conservation Service model. Impacts of urban growth on surface runoff and the rainfall–runoff relationship are examined by linking the two modeling results with spatial analysis techniques. This methodology is applied to the Zhujiang Delta of southern China, where dramatic urban growth has occurred over the past two decades, and the rampant urban growth has created severe problems in water resources management. The results revealed a notably uneven spatial pattern of urban growth and an increase of 8.10 mm in annual runoff depth during the 1989–1997 period. An area that experienced more urban growth had a greater potential for increasing annual surface runoff. Highly urbanized areas were more prone to flooding. Urbanization lowered potential maximum storage, and thus increased runoff coefficient values.  相似文献
6.
Adopting the definition suggested by the United Nations, a risk model for regional debris flow assessment is presented. Risk is defined as the product of hazard and vulnerability, both of which are necessary for evaluation. A Multiple-Factor Composite Assessment Model is developed for quantifying regional debris flow hazard by taking into account eight variables that contribute to debris flow magnitude and its frequency of occurrence. Vulnerability is a measure of the potential total losses. On a regional scale, it can be measured by the fixed asset, gross domestic product, land resources, population density, as well as the age, education, and wealth of the inhabitants. A nonlinear power-function assessment model that accounts for these indexes is developed. As a case study, the model is applied to compute the hazard, vulnerability and risk for each prefecture of the Yunnan province in southwestern China.  相似文献
7.
中缅边境地区稀有魔芋品种资源研究初探   总被引:7,自引:3,他引:4  
生长在中缅边境地区的稀有魔芋品种具有与国内外已报道过的品种迥然不同的繁殖特点。该品种除具有魔芋多糖含量高、分子量大和粘度值高的特点外,还具有地下部分的肉质根(球);不同的是各枝叶交叉点上生长着可供繁殖的小球茎。这一稀有品种至今尚未见报道。  相似文献
8.
刘海  张军 《四川环境》2001,20(4):47-50
湿地是水陆相互作用形成的独特生态系统,合理的开发利用将对西部开发中的生态环境建设直到巨大的作用。本文主要介绍我国西部湿地资源的基本情况、利用现状及存在问题,并以四川省若尔盖地区为例提出了西部湿地资源保护和可持续利用的科学对策。  相似文献
9.
我国城市垃圾资源化初探   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
随着社会经济的发展以及城市化进程的加快,我国城市垃圾日益增多而自然资源日益匮乏。若能将垃圾资源化,这不仅可以减少垃圾对环境的污染,又可以节约资源,创造资源。作者就我国城市有资源化的现状,力以及对策等进行了探讨。  相似文献
10.
Rural industries and water pollution in China   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Water pollution from small rural industries is a serious problem throughout China. Over half of all river sections monitored for water quality are rated as being unsafe for human contact, and this pollution is estimated to cost several per cent of GDP. While China has some of the toughest environmental protection laws in the world, the implementation of these laws in rural areas is not effective. This paper explains the reasons for this implementation gap. It argues that the factors that have underpinned the economic success of rural industry are precisely the same factors that cause water pollution from rural industry to remain such a serious problem in China. This means that the control of rural water pollution is not simply a technical problem of designing a more appropriate governance system, or finding better policy instruments or more funding. Instead, solutions lie in changes in the model that underpins rural development in China.  相似文献
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