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The resource curse   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
Countries that possess rich mineral deposits, it is widely assumed, are fortunate. Such deposits are assets, part of a country's natural capital. Mining is the key that converts dormant mineral wealth into schools, homes, ports, and other forms of capital that directly contribute to economic development. Over the past two decades, however, a more negative view of mining has emerged that questions the positive relationship between mineral extraction and economic development. The impetus for the alternative view came from empirical studies suggesting that countries where mining is important have not grown as rapidly as other countries. More recent studies have explored the possible reasons behind the disappointing performance of many mineral producing countries. While the central point of contention between the conventional and alternative views — namely, whether or not mining usually promotes economic development — remains unresolved, there is widespread agreement that rich mineral deposits provide developing countries with opportunities, which in some instances have been used wisely to promote development, and in other instances have been misused, hurting development. The consensus on this issue is important, for it means that one uniform policy toward all mining in the developing world is not desirable, despite the recent suggestions by some to the contrary. The appropriate public policy question is not should we or should we not promote mining in the developing countries, but rather where should we encourage it and how can we ensure that it contributes as much as possible to economic development and poverty alleviation.  相似文献
2.
Dutch disease and, more recently, resource curse thesis have been critical issues for development of resource abundant economies. This paper attempts a comparison between Indonesia and Mexico in their policy adjustments to the oil boom with special reference to the Dutch disease. There exists a striking contrast, especially in their fiscal, foreign borrowing, and exchange rate policies, and confirms the conventional understanding that a booming government should be conservative, as was the case in Indonesia, in its macroeconomic management to avoid the Dutch disease. Equally significant, investment use of oil revenues to strengthen the tradable sector is another factor responsible for Indonesian success. Mexico provides a clear-cut example of the resource curse thesis, but Indonesia is an exception.  相似文献
3.
In its role as a competitive producer of phosphate and potash Jordan has not suffered noticeably from the Resource Curse over the past 50 years. However, the effects on its economy because of its geographical proximity to major oil-producing states have been both positive and negative. It is arguable that an oil resource curse has applied to Jordan.  相似文献
4.
Qiang Ye   《Resources Policy》2008,33(2):83
Western Australia is a resource-rich province. Since the 1890s, resources booms have played a key role in the development of the state's economy. In the last few years, Western Australia's resources industry has continued to enjoy exceptional conditions created by strong international demand for commodities. This paper aims to examine the likely impact of this commodity boom in the iron ore sector on the Western Australian economy, using a general equilibrium approach. The modeling results indicate that the Western Australian economy will benefit from the expansion in iron ore exports and investment in terms of rising consumption and employment, although at the industry level there will be losers as well as winners.  相似文献
5.
Triggered by recent flood catastrophes and increasing concerns about climate change, scientists as well as policy-makers increasingly call for making long-term water policies to enable a transformation towards flood resilience. A key question is how to make these long-term policies adaptive so that they are able to deal with uncertainties and changing circumstances. The paper proposes three conditions for making long-term water policies adaptive, which are then used to evaluate a new Dutch water policy approach called ‘Adaptive Delta Management’. Analysing this national policy approach and its translation to the Rotterdam region reveals that Dutch policy-makers are torn between adaptability and the urge to control. Reflecting on this dilemma, the paper suggests a stronger focus on monitoring and learning to strengthen the adaptability of long-term water policies. Moreover, increasing the adaptive capacity of society also requires a stronger engagement with local stakeholders including citizens and businesses.  相似文献
6.
Sectoral analysis, a new branch of political science, alleges that mineral extraction creates a socio-political climate that promotes inflexible statism, which in turn leads to substandard development performance. The theory, that mineral economies underperform bureaucratically and economically, is said not only to hold in a post-dictive sense for the mature mineral economies, such as Zambia, but also in a predictive sense for the newer mineral economies, such as Ecuador. This essay reviews and assesses this hypothesis in the light of the empirical evidence comparing mineral production, state capacity, and economic performance. It finds that the sectoralist view is supportable only in selected cases, and is not a general result.  相似文献
7.
The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradeable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents.  相似文献
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荷兰《环境与规划法》着眼于可持续发展,以保障环境质量为核心,以政策循环为理论方法,以政策工具为手段,实现荷兰环境和规划领域的法典化,对于我国当前环境管理亟须解决的法规重叠、权力交叉、程序复杂等问题具有重要借鉴意义。本文在荷兰《环境与规划法》立法背景的基础上,梳理荷兰《环境与规划法》的改革方向,以期探究其对于我国构建和完善环境管理法律体系的政策启示:构建生态环境空间管控体系;运用政策循环和政策工具整合完善生态环境空间管控体系;深化简政放权,坚持放管并重;增强公众参与环境管理的主动意识。  相似文献
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