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基于MODIS数据的太湖蓝藻水华时空分布规律研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
黄君  宋挺  庄严  吴蔚 《四川环境》2014,33(5):27-33
利用EOS/MODIS遥感影像数据,采用蓝藻水华分级评价方法和蓝藻水华发生频率分析方法,对2010年~2013年不同级别太湖蓝藻水华时空分布规律进行分析和研究,以期为太湖蓝藻水华预警、监控、治理工作提供技术支持.结果表明:(1) 2010年~2013年,全太湖共发生蓝藻水华354次,其中小型水华发生次数最多,蓝藻水华级别越高,发生次数越少.(2)年际变化上,蓝藻水华发生次数总体趋于平稳,蓝藻水华发生呈现“小型多发、中大型少发、重大型偶发”趋势,蓝藻水华发生规模呈显著缩小趋势.(3)月际变化上,蓝藻水华主要发生在8 ~10月,8月和9月尤其是太湖蓝藻水华的高发月份.发生规模上,4~6月蓝藻水华发生规模较小,7月开始规模逐步扩大,到9月达到顶峰,10月规模有所缩小.(4)空间变化上,太湖西部沿岸是太湖蓝藻水华首次爆发最频繁的水域.从空间分布频率来看,太湖西部沿岸区尤其宜兴沿岸是蓝藻水华爆发频率最高的水域.  相似文献
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LAI inversion algorithm based on directional reflectance kernels   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important ecological and environmental parameter. A new LAI algorithm is developed using the principles of ground LAI measurements based on canopy gap fraction. First, the relationship between LAI and gap fraction at various zenith angles is derived from the definition of LAI. Then, the directional gap fraction is acquired from a remote sensing bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) product. This acquisition is obtained by using a kernel driven model and a large-scale directional gap fraction algorithm. The algorithm has been applied to estimate a LAI distribution in China in mid-July 2002. The ground data acquired from two field experiments in Changbai Mountain and Qilian Mountain were used to validate the algorithm. To resolve the scale discrepancy between high resolution ground observations and low resolution remote sensing data, two TM images with a resolution approaching the size of ground plots were used to relate the coarse resolution LAI map to ground measurements. First, an empirical relationship between the measured LAI and a vegetation index was established. Next, a high resolution LAI map was generated using the relationship. The LAI value of a low resolution pixel was calculated from the area-weighted sum of high resolution LAIs composing the low resolution pixel. The results of this comparison showed that the inversion algorithm has an accuracy of 82%. Factors that may influence the accuracy are also discussed in this paper.  相似文献
3.
本文利用MODIS气溶胶光学厚度产品,建立了气溶胶光学厚度与PM10/2.5的线性关系。分析了2008年~2012年四川省的气溶胶光学厚度时空分布特征,以成都市为特例分析了2003年~2012年的气溶胶光学厚度时空分布。结果显示:气溶胶光学厚度与PM10/2.5的线性关系较高;川西高原具有较低的气溶胶光学厚度,康定、马尔康、西昌、雅安等地年均气溶胶光学厚度约0.2;四川盆地区域具有较高的气溶胶光学厚度,以成都、德阳等地为代表,年均值在0.8~1.0之间,并具有明显季节变化特征;成都市的气溶胶光学厚度时空分布具有明显的城市特点。这些时空分布的特征与四川省的工业情况、地理位置、气候条件有关。  相似文献
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川西高原是我国南水北调西线工程的引水区,是我国长江上游地区的一个重要水资源补给区,研究川西高原植被覆盖和陆面变化具有非常重要的意义.利用MODIS反演的NDVI和LST资料,分析了川西高原地区植被和陆面温度的变化.高原的NDVI和LST变化趋势有明显的季节差异.春季高原的NDVI表现为南少北多的趋势,夏季高原的NDVI变化不明显.秋季和冬季,高原大部分地区的NDVI表现为减少的趋势,冬季的NDVI减少最明显.春季高原的陆面温度表现为降低的趋势,夏季高原陆面温度为增加趋势.在秋季,高原的西部和西北部地区,陆面温度是增加的,高原南部和东部地区陆面温度有比较明显的降低趋势.在冬季,高原主体陆面温度表现为比较明显的增温趋势.在春季和冬季,高原主体部分的NDVI和LST变化相反.夏季和秋季,高原主体部分的NDVI和LST的变化趋势一致.  相似文献
5.
An operational system was developed for mapping the leaf area index (LAI) for carbon cycle models from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The LAI retrieval algorithm is based on Deng et al. [2006. Algorithm for global leaf area index retrieval using satellite imagery. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44, 2219-2229], which uses the 4-scale radiative transfer model [Chen, J.M., Leblancs, 1997. A 4-scale bidirectional reflection model based on canopy architecture. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 35, 1316-1337] to simulate the relationship of LAI with vegetated surface reflectance measured from space for various spectral bands and solar and view angles. This algorithm has been integrated to the MODISoft platform, a software system designed for processing MODIS data, to generate 250 m, 500 m and 1 km resolution LAI products covering all of China from MODIS MOD02 or MOD09 products. The multi-temporal interpolation method was implemented to remove the residual cloud and other noise in the final LAI product so that it can be directly used in carbon models without further processing. The retrieval uncertainties from land cover data were evaluated using five different data sets available in China. The results showed that mean LAI discrepancies can reach 27%. The current product was also compared with the NASA MODIS MOD15 LAI product to determine the agreement and disagreement of two different product series. LAI values in the MODIS product were found to be 21% larger than those in the new product. These LAI products were compared against ground TRAC measurements in forests in Qilian Mountain and Changbaishan. On average, the new LAI product agrees with the field measurement in Changbaishan within 2%, but the MODIS product is positively biased by about 20%. In Qilian Mountain, where forests are sparse, the new product is lower than field measurements by about 38%, while the MODIS product is larger by about 65%.  相似文献
6.
Semi-structured focus group interviews were employed to examine factors that affect the likelihood that resource managers in southern Africa will use information on vegetation fires provided by two satellite-derived products: an active fire product and a burned area product. The two products are updated regularly and aim to deliver the state-of-the-art in the global monitoring of fires from satellite remote-sensing. Both products are derived from data transmitted by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors carried onboard NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites. The active fire product can be accessed for free via the internet and on media by users working anywhere in the world; the burned area product will be accessible in a similar manner in 2006. The MODIS fire products provide systematic, near-global coverage and are freely available; as such, they give resource managers new opportunities to obtain or supplement information they need to manage vegetation fires effectively. However, the availability of these products does not mean that resource managers will use them, and many other factors are involved. To understand factors that affect whether southern African resource managers will use the two products, two focus groups were held with members of the Southern African Fire Network (SAFNet) in Malawi, Africa, August 2004. Analysis of the group discussions reveals a number of factors that influence whether they will use the products. The qualitative, in depth nature of the group discussions revealed 12 main factors that influence product use; not least the low international internet bandwidths for African countries outside of South Africa. Analysis of the group discussions also suggests how the uptake of MODIS fire products by resource managers in southern Africa might be enhanced by affecting specific changes to how MODIS products are packaged and delivered.  相似文献
7.
We analyzed the possible effects of grazing management and future climate change on carbon (C) stocks in soils of northern Patagonian shrublands. To this aim, we coupled the outputs of three (HadCM3, CSIRO Mk2, and CCSR/NIES) global climate models to the CENTURY (v5.3) model of terrestrial C balance. The CENTURY model was initialized with long-term field data on local biome physiognomy, seasonal phenologic trends, and prevailing land-management systems and was validated with recent sequences of 1-km Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MODIS-Terra) images and soil C data. In the tested scenarios, the predicted climate changes would result in increased total C in soil organic matter (SOMTC). Maximum SOMTC under changed climate forcing would not differ significantly from that expected under baseline conditions (8 kg m−2). A decrease in grazing intensity would result in SOMTC increases of 11% to 12% even if climate changes did not occur. Climate change would account for SOMTC increases of 5% to 6%.  相似文献
8.
This study assesses a large‐scale hydrologic modeling framework (WRF‐Hydro‐RAPID) in terms of its high‐resolution simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow over Texas (drainage area: 464,135 km2). The reference observations used include eight‐day ET data from MODIS and FLUXNET, and daily river discharge data from 271 U.S. Geological Survey gauges located across a climate gradient. A recursive digital filter is applied to decompose the river discharge into surface runoff and base flow for comparison with the model counterparts. While the routing component of the model is pre‐calibrated, the land component is uncalibrated. Results show the model performance for ET and runoff is aridity‐dependent. ET is better predicted in a wet year than in a dry year. Streamflow is better predicted in wet regions with the highest efficiency ~0.7. In comparison, streamflow is most poorly predicted in dry regions with a large positive bias. Modeled ET bias is more strongly correlated with the base flow bias than surface runoff bias. These results complement previous evaluations by incorporating more spatial details. They also help identify potential processes for future model improvements. Indeed, improving the dry region streamflow simulation would require synergistic enhancements of ET, soil moisture and groundwater parameterizations in the current model configuration. Our assessments are important preliminary steps towards accurate large‐scale hydrologic forecasts.  相似文献
9.
This study evaluates a remotely sensed and two ground‐based potential evapotranspiration (PET) products for hydrologic application in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). The remotely sensed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer product (MODIS‐PET) is a continuous, daily time series with 250 m resolution derived using the Priestley‐Taylor (P‐T) equation. The MODIS‐PET is evaluated against regional flux tower data as well as a synthetic pan product (Epan; 0.125°, daily) derived from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and a Hargreaves PET derived from DAYMET variables (DAYMET‐PET; 1 km, daily). Compared to point‐scale PET computed using regional flux tower data, the MODIS‐PET had lower errors, with RMSE values ranging from 2.24 to 2.85 mm/day. Epan RMSE values ranged from 3.70 to 3.76 mm/day and DAYMET‐PET RMSE values ranged from 3.55 to 4.58 mm/day. Further investigation showed biases in temperature and radiation data contribute to uncertainty in the MODIS‐PET values, while bias in NLDAS temperature, downward shortwave (SW↓), and downward longwave (LW↓) propagate in the Epan estimates. Larger discrepancies between methods were observed in the warmer, drier regions of the UCRB, however, the MODIS‐PET was more responsive to landcover transitions and better captured basin heterogeneity. Results indicate the satellite‐based MODIS product can serve as a viable option for obtaining spatial PET values across the UCRB.  相似文献
10.
Generally, one expects evapotranspiration (ET) maps derived from optical/thermal Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery to improve decision support tools and lead to superior decisions regarding water resources management. However, there is lack of supportive evidence to accept or reject this expectation. We “benchmark” three existing hydrologic decision support tools with the following benchmarks: annual ET for the ET Toolbox developed by the United States Bureau of Reclamation, predicted rainfall‐runoff hydrographs for the Gridded Surface/Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the average annual groundwater recharge for the Distributed Parameter Watershed Model used by Daniel B. Stephens & Associates. The conclusion of this benchmark study is that the use of NASA/USGS optical/thermal satellite imagery can considerably improve hydrologic decision support tools compared to their traditional implementations. The benefits of improved decision making, resulting from more accurate results of hydrologic support systems using optical/thermal satellite imagery, should substantially exceed the costs for acquiring such imagery and implementing the remote sensing algorithms. In fact, the value of reduced error in estimating average annual groundwater recharge in the San Gabriel Mountains, California alone, in terms of value of water, may be as large as $1 billion, more than sufficient to pay for one new Landsat satellite.  相似文献
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