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碳税政策对我国电力系统碳减排的影响分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
碳税通常被认为是成本有效的碳减排政策工具。本文利用综合资源规划评价模型,对我国电力系统在碳税征收情景下的碳减排影响进行了分析。研究显示,碳税政策不仅实现了二氧化碳排放量减少的政策目标,同时还促进了电力系统技术和燃料结构的低碳化发展。  相似文献
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从碳税的内涵、理论渊源、碳税的影响、碳税税制设计问题与实施框架四方面入手,对国内学术界关于我国碳税问题的研究文献进行系统整理与分析,从而了解国内学术界关于碳税问题的主要研究成果,并在此基础上进行评述。研究认为:碳税开征将从宏观经济与微观经济两个层面对我国经济体系产生影响,这种影响既有正面也有负面。这就要求我国政府在碳税税制设计和实施路线上积极协调.从而达到节能减排与经济发展之间的平衡。  相似文献
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As Green Corporate Social Responsibility spreads across the globe, the construction industry is under pressure to reduce the carbon emissions across their building projects. Between maximum profit and environment management, mathematical programming can be used as a decision support tool concerning the optimal green building projects portfolio. This environment strategic decision problem is addressed in this study where an activity-based costing decision model incorporating carbon tax costs and construction resources constraints is developed from the perspectives of capacity expansion and green technology outsourcing. The results illustrate the positive contribution of the mathematical programming approach to achieve viable green building projects portfolio solutions. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to analyse the impact of carbon footprint emission variation on maximum profit, and the corresponding results are discussed.  相似文献
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As Australia recently introduced a mandatory carbon price, this paper provides a rare perspective of how such institutional changes influence consumer preferences for voluntary climate action. When examined using three contingent valuation questions, the results show that the compliance mechanism induces a substantial reduction in the number of air travellers who are willing to pay extra for voluntary carbon offsets and in the payment amount, although the crowding-out effect is incomplete. A disproportionately larger welfare benefit is attached to the carbon offsets for a domestic flight than its international counterpart. Overall empirical findings advocate the continued role of voluntary programmes.  相似文献
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Environmental tax reform could bear heavily on manufacturing sectors that are energy intensive and highly traded, in particular if their options for adapting technology are limited. However, to the extent that such sectors can pass on the cost of the environmental taxes through higher prices charged to their customers, they will not suffer a lasting drop in profitability or output. To assess pricing power in key sectors, a model of long-run price setting behaviour is specified and tested. Significant and plausible results emerged from this exercise. Of the six sectors analysed, the Basic metals sector revealed least pricing power and, hence, greatest vulnerability, and the Non-metallic minerals sector revealed most pricing power. The results indicated that the world price, proxied by the US price, was less of a constraint than the EU price, proxied by the German price. Thus, international competitiveness fears are reduced not just where there is good potential for adapting technology but also if application of environmental tax reform is EU-wide.  相似文献
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控制汽柴油消费对中国的能源安全和环境保护有着重要意义。燃油税和碳税是中国近期两种主要的已经或可能施加于燃油的税收政策。以自回归分布滞后模型为核心,本研究构建了一个燃油税和碳税的区域能源环境影响评估模型。利用模型估计了我国的燃油需求价格弹性,测算了燃油需求响应,计算了在相同CO2减排目标下,提高汽油消费税、提高柴油消费税、引入碳税三种政策情景下各省份预计产生的节能效应、减排效应和税收效益。研究结果显示,在相同的CO2减排目标下,第一,在不同情景下,各省份节能程度差异均有限,但节能数量均体现出区域匹配性,燃油消费越多的省份,节能数量一般越多,且提高汽油消费税的全国节能总量最大;第二,在引入碳税情景下,各省份CO2减排比例差异最小;第三,在全国层面,三种政策情景中空气污染物(PM2.5和NOx和SO2)减排数量均为提高汽油消费税 > 引入碳税 > 提高柴油消费税,但在提高柴油消费税情景下,有4/5的省份预计PM2.5排放减少程度超过14%。除此之外,提高汽油消费税的税收收益最大。  相似文献
7.
基于2012年微观层面的社会核算矩阵(SAM)表,本文构建动态可计算的一般均衡(CGE)模型,分别设计碳交易和碳税情景加入该模型,模拟中国2012—2030年的宏观经济效应和部门结构效应。研究结果表明:就宏观效应来看,2030年碳交易和碳税情景的碳强度分别比基准情景下降了24.24%和26.487%,分别完成碳减排目标的55.052%和59.349%;碳交易情景下消费、投资、出口和进口出现较大波动,碳税情景下这些指标小幅上涨。就部门经济效应来看,能源部门受政策情景影响最大,其次是制造业部门,其他部门受到的影响较小;碳交易情景对各部门增加值有抑制作用,并对原油和天然气部门的消费产生较大冲击。就部门减排效应来看,制造业部门的减排效应较显著;碳税情景的减排效应优于碳交易情景。总体而言,单一实施碳交易或碳税政策,不能完全实现碳减排目标,碳税政策相对温和,可以考虑两种减排政策配合实施,以减缓对经济系统冲击,并实现碳减排目标。  相似文献
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