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This paper presents a new kind of integrated modeling method for simulating the vulnerability of a critical infrastructure for a hazard and the subsequent interdependencies among the interconnected infrastructures. The developed method has been applied to a case study of a network of hydroelectricity generating infrastructures, e.g., water storage concrete gravity dam, penstock, power plant and transformer substation. The modeling approach is based on the fragility curves development with Monte Carlo simulation based structural–hydraulic modeling, flood frequency analysis, stochastic Petri net (SPN) modeling, and Markov Chain analysis. A certain flood level probability can be predicted from flood frequency analysis, and the most probable damage condition for this hazard can be simulated from the developed fragility curves of the dam. Consequently, the resulting interactions among the adjacent infrastructures can be quantified with SPN analysis; corresponding Markov Chain analysis simulates the long term probability matrix of infrastructure failures. The obtained results are quite convincing to prove the novel contribution of this research to the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis which might serve as a decision making tool for flood related emergency response and management.  相似文献
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Local governments (county and city) take the most active role in responding to natural and manmade disasters, yet very little is understood about the role of the emergency manager-the administrator who organizes and coordinates the emergency response of a community. This article describes the more common organizational niches that emergency managers are placed into, and it examines some of the political, institutional, and budgetary constraints that hinder the emergency manager's operations. Finally, it suggests strategies for solving these problems and identifies areas for further research.  相似文献
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秦皇岛近海有害藻华主要由微型及微微型藻类引起,产生的主要原因为水体营养盐,其发生时间主要集中在5~9月。结合秦皇岛地域特色,提出有害藻华的防控及应急治理需从政策、法律、机制、预案及方法等几个方面着手,建立科学的预防体系及有效的应急体系。  相似文献
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随着经济的高速发展,环境污染事故也呈现出上升的势头,环境污染事故不仅造成了环境危害,而且对人民群众的安全产生了重大威胁。鉴于环境污染事故的多发性、危害性,应急处置显然非常重要,而构建强大的应急处置信息系统有助于应急处置和分析决策的顺利进行。本文分析了环境应急处置需求,提出了建立环境污染应急管理信息系统的设计框架。  相似文献
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海上溢油事故不仅给企业造成巨大经济损失,如果处置不当还将引发严重的环境污染事故。文章基于对大连"7.16"及BP"4.20"溢油污染事故处理方法分析,探讨了国内外海上溢油应急技术的发展概况,并结合中国石油企业海上溢油应急建设实际情况,探究了中国石油企业海上溢油应急处置的关键技术问题。为中国石油企业海上溢油应急管理建设和应急技术发展提供参考。  相似文献
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马建锋  罗文锋 《四川环境》2009,28(6):105-108,114
随着社会经济的发展,突发性环境污染事故频繁发生。为有效预防和控制突发性环境污染事故,各国开发了相应的应急管理系统,为污染事故处置提供应对技术和决策支持。本文综合论述了国内外突发环境污染事故应急管理系统的开发和应用情况、服务内容及特点,并对我国应急管理的发展提出建议。  相似文献
7.
应对突发事件及中国石油应急管理体系建设受到了高度重视。分析了国际社会应对突发事件的现状及我国应急管理的主要特征;概述了中国石油应急管理体系建设情况,从应急组织体系、制度体系、预案体系、保障体系以及技术支撑体系建设方面对应急管理现状进行综合分析。表明:国际社会已形成应对突发事件的体制、机制和战略对策;我国政府在生产事故、自然灾害、公共卫生、社会安全4种类型突发事件应对上已具有一定的能力;中国石油应急管理在应对各类型重大突发事件中成效明显,并形成相对完整的应急管理体系。  相似文献
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This paper presents the findings of a prototype study which sought to identify factors that contribute to effective emergency management in Greece and other European states regarding both natural disasters and critical accidents. The parameters for proper action and successful intervention in operational and logistical are identified based on the document analysis and interviews with emergency responders. The interviews are conducted between state-owned and voluntary organizations. They were asked to rate in terms of their importance for effective emergency response efforts. This paper offers useful information of the organization and management of emergency response in Greece, as well as provides interesting responders' opinions data concerning important priorities in the emergency management area. Despite the fact that the data come from the Greek experience, the conclusions may be applied for a broader use in the emergency planning of disasters. The whole study has been undertaken within the European Pre-Emergencies (PreEm) project.  相似文献
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