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排序方式: 共有52条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
石油石化企业面临的低碳发展挑战和机遇   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
在简要介绍低碳经济的概念和内涵的基础上,指出了低碳经济对我国经济发展的意义。从石油天然气勘探开发、炼油与化工和油气储运三个方面,简要分析了我国石油石化企业的碳足迹,列举了石油石化企业温室气体主要排放源。结合石油石化行业的特点和当前国内外形势,从多个方面分析、阐述了石油石化企业面临的低碳经济挑战和机遇。最后,从低碳经济发展时机、发展规划、与环境保护工作的关系、科技投入、能力建设、发展重点等方面,对石油石化企业低碳经济的发展提出了看法和建议。  相似文献
2.
Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives and is centered around: preservation of primary forest, intensified use of nontimber resources, agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry. The information in this document has been wholly funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It has been subjected to the agency's peer and administrative review and approved for publication of an EPA document. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.  相似文献
3.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) should be properly disposed in order to help protect environmental quality and human health, as well as to preserve natural resources. During MSW disposal processes, a large amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) is emitted, leading to a significant impact on climate change. In this study, an inexact dynamic optimization model (IDOM) is developed for MSW-management systems under uncertainty. It grounds upon conventional mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) approaches, and integrates GHG components into the modeling framework. Compared with the existing models, IDOM can not only deal with the complex tradeoff between system cost minimization and GHG-emission mitigation, but also provide optimal allocation strategies under various emission-control standards. A case study is then provided for demonstrating applicability of the developed model. The results indicate that desired waste-flow patterns with a minimized system cost and GHG-emission amount can be obtained. Of more importance, the IDOM solution is associated with over 5.5 million tonnes of TEC reduction, which is of significant economic implication for real implementations. Therefore, the proposed model could be regarded as a useful tool for realizing comprehensive MSW management with regard to mitigating climate-change impacts.  相似文献
4.
Characteristics of coal mine ventilation air flows   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a greenhouse gas but also a wasted energy resource if not utilised. Underground coal mining is by far the most important source of fugitive methane emissions, and approximately 70% of all coal mining related methane is emitted to the atmosphere through mine ventilation air. Therefore, research and development on mine methane mitigation and utilisation now focuses on methane emitted from underground coal mines, in particular ventilation air methane (VAM) capture and utilisation. To date, most work has focused on the oxidation of very low concentration methane. These processes may be classified based on their combustion kinetic mechanisms into thermal oxidation and catalytic oxidation. VAM mitigation/utilisation technologies are generally divided into two basic categories: ancillary uses and principal uses. However, it is possible that the characteristics of ventilation air flows, for example the variations in methane concentration and the presence of certain compounds, which have not been reported so far, could make some potential VAM mitigation and utilisation technologies unfeasible if they cannot cope with the characteristics of mine site ventilation air flows. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows. Moreover, dust, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, and other possible compounds emitted through mine ventilation air into the atmosphere are also pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents mine-site experimental results on the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows, including methane concentration and its variations, dust loadings, particle size, mineral matter of the dust, and other compounds in the ventilation air flows. The paper also discusses possible correlations between ventilation air characteristics and underground mining activities.  相似文献
5.
Climate change in Asia: issues and policy options   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This article provides a brief review of some of the policy issues facing the Asian region with respect to climate change and its economic consequences. The environmental consequences of Asia's economic rise threaten the future growth of the region. Despite recent economic expansion, Asia will be one of the areas of the world most vulnerable to climate change. While Asia currently contributes moderately to greenhouse gas emissions, the potential for increases in emissions is significant. National and regional policy options, including abatement and adaptation, are examined as strategies for tackling the likely effects of climate change. This study recommends that national initiatives that have no 'regrets' properties be a priority area for further research so that they can be implemented as soon as possible. It is envisaged that in the short to medium term, identifiable no regrets policies can be a useful tool for reducing emissions and vulnerability to climate change in developing regions such as Asia.  相似文献
6.
加拿大油气系统温室气体逃逸排放清单简述   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
油气系统温室气体逃逸排放是温室气体排放清单的重要组成部分。加拿大在清单中统一考虑了油气系统可能存在的温室气体排放源,因此清单中不仅包括了温室气体的逃逸排放(泄漏、排空),还考虑了能源燃烧中的气体排放,所考虑的温室气体种类既包括甲烷,也包括二氧化碳。采用的是政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)第三层次方法(Tier3),即设备清单法、操作时间法和活动水平法三种计算方法,详细地将排放源分类进行估算。该国对数据的管理、质量控制和质量评估、不确定性分析以及在如何保证数据的持续性方面的作法都值得我们学习和借鉴。  相似文献
7.
通过生命周期评价(LCA)的方法,对上海市某区生活垃圾处理现状及4个不同可选处理方案的温室气体(GHG)排放量进行了分析。结果表明,当前该区生活垃圾处理系统的GHG排放总量为776.42 t CO2eq.,其中填埋、焚烧和堆肥分别占33%、39%和20%,其他处理单元仅占8%。通过4个可选方案的对比表明,采取垃圾分类收集、资源回收、厌氧消化和堆肥残渣焚烧处置等措施可有效降低该区生活垃圾处理系统的GHG排放,其中综合了上述4类措施的优化方案四的GHG减排量最高,达44%。此外,敏感性分析数据表明,生活垃圾的厌氧消化比例对GHG减排影响比较显著,因此厌氧消化可作为可生化垃圾的优先处理技术。  相似文献
8.
石油石化企业温室气体清单编制简析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
文章通过简要阐述石油石化企业温室气体清单的编制全过程,确定石油石化企业温室气体排放种类、识别主要温室气体排放源、列举重点生产过程中温室气体排放量的核算方法,为石油石化企业实现温室气体减排和控制工作、为完成国务院规定的到2020年我国单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放强度比2005年下降40%~45%的约束性指标,奠定数据理论基础。  相似文献
9.
Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the other hand Mass Burn Incineration generates greenhouse gas emission savings when it recovers electricity and heat. Moreover the study found that the expected increase on the amount of Municipal Solid Waste treated for energy recovery in England by 2020 could save greenhouse gas emission, if certain Energy from Waste technologies would be applied, under certain conditions.  相似文献
10.
清洁发展机制在石油行业的潜力分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
系统分析了石油行业清洁发展机制项目的潜力,并提出了建议。在统计与石油行业相关的清洁发展机制方法学及其注册项目和温室气体减排量的基础上,给出了各方法学与石油行业的相关性。从勘探与生产、天然气与管道、炼油与化工三大领域,分析了石油行业潜在的清洁发展机制项目领域。最后,提出了对石油行业开展清洁发展机制相关工作的建议。  相似文献
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