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1.
The increased concern about environmental problems caused by inadequate waste management, as well as the concern about global warming, promotes actions toward a sustainable management of the organic fraction of the waste. Landfills, the most common means to dispose of municipal solid waste (MSW), lead to the conversion of the organic waste to biogas, containing about 50% methane, a very active greenhouse gas (GHG). One unit of methane has a global warming potential of 21 computed for a 100-year horizon or 56 computed for 20 years. The waste sector in Israel contributes 13% of total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions for a time horizon of 100 years (for a time horizon of 20 years, the waste sector contribution equals to more than 25% of total GHG emissions). The ultimate goal is to minimize the amount of methane (CH4) by converting it to CO2. This can be achieved by physicochemical means (e.g., landfill gas flare, incineration) or by biological processes (e.g., composting, anaerobic digestion). Since the waste in Israel has a high organic material content, it was found that the most cost-effective means to treat the degradable organic components is by aerobic composting (investment of less than US$ 10 to reduce emission of one ton CO2 equivalent per year). Another benefit of this technology is the ability to implement it within a short period. The suggested approach, which should be implemented especially in developing countries, could reduce a significant amount of GHG at relatively low cost and short time. The development of a national policy for proper waste treatment can be a significant means to abate GHG emissions in the short term, enabling a gain in time to develop other means for the long run. In addition, the use of CO2 quotas will credit the waste sector and will promote profitable proper waste management.  相似文献
2.
Transaction costs and the clean development mechanism   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
3.
Estimation of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from US Grasslands   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
2 O) emissions from temperate grasslands are poorly quantified and may be an important part of the atmospheric N2O budget. In this study N2O emissions were simulated for 1052 grassland sites in the United States using the NGAS model of Parton and others (1996) coupled with an organic matter decomposition model. N2O flux was calculated for each site using soil and land use data obtained from the National Resource Inventory (NRI) database and weather data obtained from NASA. The estimates were regionalized based upon temperature and moisture isotherms. Annual N2O emissions for each region were based on the grassland area of each region and the mean estimated annual N2O flux from NRI grassland sites in the region. The regional fluxes ranged from 0.18 to 1.02 kg N2O N/ha/yr with the mean flux for all regions being 0.28 kg N2O N/ha/yr. Even though fluxes from the western regions were relatively low, these regions made the largest contribution to total emissions due to their large grassland area. Total US grassland N2O emissions were estimated to be about 67 Gg N2O N/yr. Emissions from the Great Plains states, which contain the largest expanse of natural grassland in the United States, were estimated to average 0.24 kg N2O N/ha/yr. Using the annual flux estimate for the temperate Great Plains, we estimate that temperate grasslands worldwide may potentially produce 0.27 Tg N2O N/yr. Even though our estimate for global temperate grassland N2O emissions is less than published estimates for other major temperate and tropical biomes, our results indicate that temperate grasslands are a significant part of both United States and global atmospheric N2O budgets. This study demonstrates the utility of models for regional N2O flux estimation although additional data from carefully designed field studies is needed to further validate model results.  相似文献
4.
Methane fluxes from artificial wetlands: A global appraisal   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Methane emissions make an important contribution to the enhanced greenhouse effect, emissions from rice growing being one of its major anthropogenic sources. The estimation of global fluxes of methane from rice and from coarse fiber production depends on extrapolating observed data across countries and agroclimatic zones: the estimates are therefore imprecise. We present a revised estimate of global emissions of 96 Tg CH4/yr, given 1991 rice areas, and 1991 production data for those tropical coarse fibers that also produce methane under anaerobic conditions. This is higher than many previous studies, which systematically underestimated the fluxes from tropical countries. As the world's population increases, the demand for rice will rise. This demand can only be satisfied through greater rice production, either by bringing new areas into rice growing or by using the present area more intensively. Strategies based on improved water management and fertilizer use will allow increased rice production and yields and reduce the methane flux per unit or rice production.  相似文献
5.
A system dynamics model based on the dynamic interactions among a number of system components is developed to estimate CO(2) emissions from the cement industry in India. The CO(2) emissions are projected to reach 396.89 million tonnes by the year 2020 if the existing cement making technological options are followed. Policy options of population growth stabilisation, energy conservation and structural management in cement manufacturing processes are incorporated for developing the CO(2) mitigation scenarios. A 42% reduction in the CO(2) emissions can be achieved in the year 2020 based on an integrated mitigation scenario. Indirect CO(2) emissions from the transport of raw materials to the cement plants and finished product to market are also estimated.  相似文献
6.
Increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are widely expected to cause global warming and other climatic changes. It is important to establish priorities for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions, so that resources can be allocated efficiently and effectively. This is a global problem, and it is possible, on a global scale, to identify those activities whose emissions have the greatest potential for enhancing the greenhouse effect. However, perspectives from smaller scales must be appreciated, because it is on scales down to the local level that response measures will be implemented. This paper analyzes the relative importance of emissions from the many individual sources, on scales ranging from global to national to subnational. Individual country perspectives and proposed policy measures and those of subnational political entities exhibit some commonalities but differ among themselves and from a global-scale perspective in detail.  相似文献
7.
The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to relate to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) Everything is interconnected (and should usually stay that way), and (2) We can never do merely one thing. The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced—or even turned into conservation benefits—by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry's programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones.  相似文献
8.
Large-scale environmental research efforts are conducted under frameworks that provide a common basis for evaluating research in many diverse fields. Such frameworks should be subjected to critical review to determine if they meet crucial expectations. In the case of the US Global Change Research Program, we perceive that most research follows a framework that we define as the predictive model framework. We believe this framework is insufficient for resolving the unprecedented predicaments posed by global change. We recommend a complementary framework, the system response framework, which directs research toward useful indicators of change rather than precise predictions. We further argue that, even if research is complementary and effective under the two frameworks, conclusive results prior to decisions should not be expected. The burden of proof must itself be a continuing topic of open discourse and inquiry.  相似文献
9.
In addition to national inventories of emissions of greenhouse gases, there are inventories for most, but not all, states constituting the United States. This paper analyzes the state inventories to see if reported emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are additive. Considerable reanalysis of the state inventories is required before they can be added to yield a larger-scale inventory. Some specific sources were considered by some states but not by others. Estimation techniques evolved over time as inventories were produced, and there are instances of both double-counting (two states reporting the same emission) and omission (neither state reporting the same emission), where interstate transfers of energy or materials occurred. Nevertheless, the inventories, when adjusted for obvious double-counting or omissions, are probably approximately additive, although it is difficult to quantify the extent to which this is true.  相似文献
10.
从欧盟、英国和美国的立法实践来看,排放配额的初始分配在排放权交易计划实施的初期基本上以无偿分配为主、有偿分配为辅。从排放配额的财产权性质、温室气体排放活动的负外部性以及分配的公平和效率等方面来看,排放配额的初始分配应当采取有偿分配方式。  相似文献
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