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The World Commission on Dams (WCD) has now presented its final report on the problems with large dams. Many dam projects were found to be underperforming, especially those built for irrigation purposes. WCD also reports that many projects fail to meet current standards of social equity. A reallocation of costs and benefits is needed, but entrenched interests make this a difficult task. This article identifies shortcomings in large Asian irrigation projects: why the problems emerged, and what could be done to improve the performance of existing projects. The article argues that Asian irrigation agencies take mainly an engineering perspective, focusing on the dam itself. In a large number of cases, it takes over 10 years for the infrastructure to be installed and for the water to be delivered to the fields of the command area. Agencies need to improve their competence in dealing with social and environmental issues. This article argues that social and economic infrastructure is often inadequate; there is a need for an integrated view of the role of agriculture in development. Furthermore, adaptive management practices and water user participation can often be critical elements. To be successful, participation needs to be gender sensitive, and stakeholders at all income levels need to be consulted. To bridge the gulf between rhetoric and action, there is also a need for independent evaluation of dam projects.  相似文献
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2018"全国党校(行政学院)系统学习贯彻习近平生态文明思想理论研讨会"成功召开,达成了至少以下三方面的共识:首先,习近平生态文明思想发源于福建,发展和成熟于浙江,是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想最富原创性的成果之一。这一重要思想体现了"一脉相承",体现了对马克思主义理论和我国传统文化的继承与发展。其次,生态文明建设的"四梁八柱"已搭建完成,下一步的重点在于如何落实。从地方推进改革的战略维度,关键要坚持与强化党的全面领导,着力解决突出环境问题,推进绿色发展主导,优化国土空间开发规划,注重制度建设与创新引领。最后,生态文明建设领域的学科建设与教学培训尚处于起步阶段。与会学者提出了几组反映中国经验及其逻辑和特征的核心概念或实践探索,包括生态系统生产总值(GEP)核算、生态产品的内涵及其价值实现,以及自然资源资产负债表编制等。  相似文献
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