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While ecosystem-based planning approaches are increasingly promoted through international and national policies, municipalities are still struggling with translating them into practice. Against this background, this paper aims to increase the knowledge of current advances and possible ways to support the implementation of the ecosystem services (ES) approach at the municipal level. More specifically, we analyze how ES have been integrated into comprehensive planning within the municipality of Malmö in Sweden over the last 60 years, a declared forerunner in local environmental governance. Based on a content analysis of comprehensive plans over the period 1956–2014 and interviews with municipal stakeholders, this paper demonstrates how planning has shifted over time toward a more holistic view of ES and their significance for human well-being and urban sustainability. Both explicit and implicit applications of the ES concept were found in the analyzed comprehensive plans and associated programs and projects. Our study shows how these applications reflect international, national, and local policy changes, and indicates how municipalities can gradually integrate the ES approach into comprehensive planning and facilitate the transition from implicit to more explicit knowledge use.  相似文献
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2019年9月召开的联合国气候行动峰会,确定自然解决方案为应对全球气候变化的重要行动领域,并由中国和新西兰担任牵头国家。近10年,自然解决方案理念发展迅速,联合国环境规划署和世界自然保护联盟等呼吁将自然解决方案作为实现全球可持续发展的核心手段,并提出了具有指导意义的相关标准。本文介绍了自然解决方案的概念、历程与标准,列举了自然解决方案在气候变化、流域修复、生物多样性保护和粮食安全等领域的应用案例,从标准规范、工程管理、体系建设等维度对自然解决方案与我国生态文明建设进行比较,最后提出了有效融合自然解决方案与我国生态文明建设的7条建议。  相似文献
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