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A plethora of terms are used to describe the form of governance of complex social‐ecological systems, such as multi‐level governance, polycentricity and network governance. This plethora of terms is associated with a diffuse literature from which it can be challenging to identify which variables are important for investigation of the governance system and what questions could be asked. The purpose of this article is to present the development of a guide for the analysis of the complex governance systems of renewable natural resources, informed by a breadth of literature from which key characteristics, challenges and concepts are identified. The guide consists of three dimensions: multiplicities of levels, actors and institutions; the existence, opportunities for, and challenges of, interactions within and between levels (vertical and horizontal interactions); and an assessment of governance performance through application of governance principles. The guide is applied to a case study of mangrove forests in Kenya, to illustrate its utility in generating understanding and identification of challenges and opportunities for more effective multi‐level governance. It is proposed that the guide could be beneficial to researchers and practitioners seeking to develop an understanding of structures, performance and outcomes of multi‐level governance.  相似文献
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What supports the adaptive capacity of watershed governance? Using document review, interviews, and network diagrams, we analyze how structural attributes of a governance network emerged and co-evolved with changes in biophysical conditions in a case study of a small watershed in northeast Ohio. Results indicate that the network governance structure that emerged evolved to become a hybrid of two different structural forms that diversified stakeholder engagement, generated social capital, improved social learning, and stimulated change in management practices, all of which have enhanced adaptive capacity. A significant challenge to adaptive capacity arises, however, as network governance has come to rely significantly on a centralized organization to broker relationships for information and other resources.  相似文献
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ABSTRACT

Reflexive governance can be understood as an emergent encapsulated trust-building corporatism where network participants are neither state functionaries nor market entrepreneurs but network reciproqueteurs. This paper argues that such reflexive network governance results in a post-regulatory corporatism (PRC)—a more adaptable, less formalized, and flexible mode of interest intermediation, policy-making, and policy-implementation than previous modes of corporatist intermediation. Functional differentiation processes engender ‘negotiated connected contracts' in rescaled space in between inter-regional assemblages, a mode of structurally coupling new social partners in the emergent transnational knowledge-based economy. This involves the building of new social capital of network trust-building manifested in the norms of reciprocity and reflexive law constituted as a new mode of protocolism: one associated with the social learning and policy designing necessary for ecological systems' autopoeisis, resilience, and sustainability. This paper conceptualizes reflexive network governance as protocolism in constellations of PRC and discusses examples from the area of environmental policy-making. PRC is understood as a new mode of negotiated rule-making: as a recursive protocolism of multi-stakeholder social pacts constituted by frame agreements and negotiated connected network contracts.  相似文献
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ABSTRACT

Theories of reflexive governance are closely linked with the claim that more traditional modes of coordination have been replaced by networked structures, allowing reflexivity to emerge and reflexive learning to function as a steering mechanism in rapidly changing policy contexts. This paper explores this connection between reflexivity, governance, learning and networks in societal transitions, focusing particularly on the claim that networks will deliver reflexive learning. Using network theories from both policy networks and network governance and a case study of the Canadian agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech) policy network, it suggests that the kind of learning produced in networks will be a function of network structure. In particular, higher order reflexive learning will be compromised by the inevitability of the political struggle for nodality or central place in networks and the ensuing distribution of opportunities for bridging and bonding activities. Networks such as the Canadian agbiotech policy network that may promote learning but not necessarily reflexive learning are increasingly disadvantaged in contemporary policy settings.  相似文献
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As part of the debate on the legitimacy of governance networks in global environmental politics, this article investigates the conditions under which policy solutions can be transferred worldwide as a result of a particular type of interaction within transnational expert networks and technical committees. To this end, the article hypothesises that policy solutions can be legitimised in governance networks meeting four cumulative criteria: participation, flexibility, horizontality and inclusiveness. This hypothesis is then tested by means of two heuristic case studies dedicated to the worldwide transfer of environmental standards via United Nations specialized agencies. The empirical work partly strengthens the validity of the hypothesis but also underscores the limits of legitimation strategies in the face of strong heterogeneity of interests. In such cases, environmental policy networks may adopt fairly “vertical” features and resort to classical bargaining and constraint strategies whereby compromises are exchanged and power asymmetries are mobilised.  相似文献
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Major disasters, such as bushfires or floods, place significant stress on scarce public resources. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this stress. An integrated approach to disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation (CCA) could reduce the stress by encouraging the more efficient use of pooled resources and expertise. A comparative analysis of three extreme climate-related events that occurred in Australia between 2009 and 2011 indicated that a strategy to improve interagency communication and collaboration would be a key factor in this type of policy/planning integration. These findings are in accord with the concepts of Joined-up Government and Network Governance. Five key reforms are proposed: developing a shared policy vision; adopting multi-level planning; integrating legislation; networking organisations; and establishing cooperative funding. These reforms are examined with reference to the related research literature in order to identify potential problems associated with their implementation. The findings are relevant for public policy generally but are particularly useful for CCA and DRM.  相似文献
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李梅 《中国环境管理》2022,14(4):102-108
网络化治理作为一种不同于科层—集中型和市场—分散型的新型治理方式,在环境治理中有其自身的优势。当前,区域环境公共事务的不断增长已超出政府单个主体的能力范围,需要加强政府与企业、社会组织及公众等多元主体的共同治理,构建以多元主体参与为核心的多重、复杂、交叉的网络化环境治理模式。基于网络化治理产生的背景、演变过程和内涵,围绕多元主体相互作用、行动主体的网络关系结构和模式、治理网络的运行逻辑和机制等方面系统梳理其研究进展,为推进我国现代化环境治理体系提供参考。  相似文献
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