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1.
We have developed a method to analyse the annual material flow in a prefecture and have calculated environmental indicators for a prefecture. Material flow analysis (MFA) is important to clarify the structure of a regional society and obtain environmental indicators for a circular society. However, MFA has not advanced in local governments because of few local statistics. We have developed a method to analyse the annual material flow in Aichi prefecture from 1980 to 2000 using an input–output (I–O) table and statistics of Aichi. We have verified the accuracy of this method by comparing its results for 2000 which calculated on the basis of official I–O table for 1995 with the I–O table data for 2000; the correlation coefficient obtained in this case is greater than 0.95. Moreover, by performing MFA, we have estimated the resource consumption and decoupling indicator of each industry in Aichi prefecture from 1980 to 2000. We could obtain more detailed and accurate environmental indicators by using our method. From these results, we could estimate the progress of Aichi prefecture towards a circular society.  相似文献
2.
Validation of a hybrid life-cycle inventory analysis method   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The life-cycle inventory analysis step of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) may currently suffer from several limitations, mainly concerned with the use of incomplete and unreliable data sources and methods of assessment. Many past LCA studies have used traditional inventory analysis methods, namely process analysis and input-output analysis. More recently, hybrid inventory analysis methods have been developed, combining these two traditional methods in an attempt to minimise their limitations. In light of recent improvements, these hybrid methods need to be compared and validated, as these too have been considered to have several limitations. This paper evaluates a recently developed hybrid inventory analysis method which aims to improve the limitations of previous methods. It was found that the truncation associated with process analysis can be up to 87%, reflecting the considerable shortcomings in the quantity of process data currently available. Capital inputs were found to account for up to 22% of the total inputs to a particular product. These findings suggest that current best-practice methods are sufficiently accurate for most typical applications, but this is heavily dependent upon data quality and availability. The use of input-output data assists in improving the system boundary completeness of life-cycle inventories. However, the use of input-output analysis alone does not always provide an accurate model for replacing process data. Further improvements in the quantity of process data currently available are needed to increase the reliability of life-cycle inventories.  相似文献
3.
"十五"期间重庆市区城市用地供需状况   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
随着经济发展的加速,重庆市的城市化进程明显加快,城市用地的供需矛盾日渐凸显.从影响城市用地的几个因素出发,分析了重庆市区城市用地供需状况.综合评价的结果表明,耕地是重庆市区城市用地的重要供给来源,2001~2005年间重庆市区城市用地短缺约57km2.  相似文献
4.
Continental waters are complex resources in terms of a measurable physical quantity, and measuring them requires a good knowledge of total water availability. In this research, an accounting physical input–output table (PIOT) was applied to evaluate total water resources and gross annual availabilities at each stage of the natural-artificial water cycle. These stages are considered subsystems of a continental water resource system describing water transfers for an average year within 13 administrative basins of Spain. Water transfers between various subsystems are characterized by internal flows decreasing the water resource availabilities. The PIOT analysis establishes these internal flows, and the origins and final uses of the total resources for each subsystem. The input-output balance registered an unsustainable negative net accumulation in eight water basins. The PIOT analysis also allowed the calculation of significant indicators such as water resource developments (RDI) and their sustainable use (SUI). RDI and SUI demonstrate that groundwater is a critical resource affecting the environment (e.g., wetlands in the upper Guadiana) and the water supply (e.g., irrigation in the Segura basin). The results of this model suggest that above-/below-ground hydrological links are important when decisions have to be made in order to provide a satisfactory supply of water in Spain. The model integrates the different water basins under territorial criteria, and therefore it may be useful for the Spanish National Hydrological Plan.  相似文献
5.
The Hunter Region in New South Wales, Australia, is undergoing rapid economic development based on its black coal resources. Cumulative impacts of new projects cannot be easily assessed with the traditional environmental impact statement. This article examines air quality impacts, and presents a systems analysis model to assist environmental management. The model consists of an input-output model of the regional economy and an air dispersion model. Results are obtained for sulfur oxides and fluorides.  相似文献
6.
体育教学过程中,教学效果的好坏取决于师生双方对过程的调控程度,而对技能教学的调控,则依据教师的教学反馈和学生的自我反馈来实现。在体育教学过程中,教学反馈与自我反馈的有机结合,是提高教学质量的关键。  相似文献
7.
本文把环境经济学中的有关原理和方法引入工业污染源监测工作中。详细介绍了产品物料投入—转化—产出全平衡模型的建立;并在此基础上进行工业污染源工艺剖析和有关计算,确定出工业污染源监测点位的布设和监测频率  相似文献
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9.
邹国俊 《四川环境》1995,14(1):32-34
在科技成果日益商品化的形势下,必须考虑科研的有效产出,同时降低科研经费的成本,尽可能做到投入小于产出;本文结合我所多年的实践,从科技运行机制和会计制度的应用和基本理论,技能和方法,在实践的基础上,进行归纳总结,提出一些观点,以适应科研工作和会计核算和需要,促进科研供给制向着经营型转化进行探索。  相似文献
10.
通过多年的试验、示范证明,杂交稻具有旱能保产、湿能增产的特点,特别是在通气式大田水层栽插、湿润管理的条件下,具有节水、增产、改良土壤的作用。对在灌溉条件较差的丘陵山区和圩区发展水稻生产有积极的作用。  相似文献
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