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娱乐文化功能是生态系统向人类提供的重要服务功能之一。研究生态系统娱乐文化价值是研究生态系统服务功能的一个重要方面。了解娱乐文化价值的重要性对我国生态系统脆弱但旅游资源丰富的贫困地区的发展具有重要意义。阐述了生态系统娱乐文化价值的内涵与构成,利用国内外有关娱乐文化价值评估的数据资料,总结得出了娱乐文化价值量的重要性,并说明了其评估方法。最后提出了解决我国生态脆弱但旅游资源丰富的贫困地区的可持续发展之路——发展生态旅游,以及生态旅游管理的措施和建议。  相似文献
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娱乐文化功能是生态系统向人类提供的重要服务功能之一。研究生态系统娱乐文化价值是研究生态系统服务功能的一个重要方面。了解娱乐文化价值的重要性对我国生态系统脆弱但旅游资源丰富的贫困地区的发展具有重要意义。阐述了生态系统娱乐文化价值的内涵与构成,利用国内外有关娱乐文化价值评估的数据资料,总结得出了娱乐文化价值量的重要性,并说明了其评估方法。最后提出了解决我国生态脆弱但旅游资源丰富的贫困地区的可持续发展之路——发展生态旅游,以及生态旅游管理的措施和建议。  相似文献
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Global consumption, production, and trade of livestock products have increased rapidly in the last two decades and are expected to continue. At the same time, safety concerns regarding human and animal disease associated with livestock products are increasing. Efforts to increase public health safety standards aimed at legitimately reducing the risks of human and animal disease have focused internationally on standards to regulate the movement of livestock products. There is concern, though, that measures to regulate these standards internationally, such as the WTO SPS measures that in part aim to open international markets, may marginalize small-scale poor producers. The cycle of poverty they are trying to escape through livestock production may, in fact, widen, leading to increased global poverty, malnutrition, and disease. Developing and developed nations alike should be concerned with public and private efforts to address appropriate food safety policies to reduce the likelihood of this effect. Analysis of the impact on small-scale livestock farmers is needed, as well as solutions that consider joint public and private sector initiatives. Costly farm to table tracking systems are not an option, but locally orchestrated vertically integrated systems may have merit in reducing food safety risks and in providing small-scale farmers with increased access to markets, locally and internationally. Increased scientific and technical capacity, and training of WTO officials from developing nations is also needed.  相似文献
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Mining has grown rapidly and is expected to continue to develop solidly in the future with the economic development in China. Based on this trend, how an increase in the outputs of mining sectors affects household income and poverty alleviation is an issue worthy of study. A multiplier decomposition method within a social accounting matrix (SAM) framework shows the linkages through which a mining sector's output contributes to household income growth and poverty alleviation. The decomposition applied to China reveals that mining development has more significantly positive impacts on the high and middle income household than low income household. Moreover, the decomposition incorporated with the Foster, Greer and Thoerbecke (FGT) poverty measure shows that the ‘coal’ sector contributes most to poverty alleviation and the low income household group, which has the biggest poverty rate, is the smallest beneficiary from the mining development. Thus, the policy implication is proposed that the government should give appropriate adjustment on the distribution of income between rich and poor households and help the unskilled human capital from the household group at a low income level to handle advanced technology of mining through education and training to reduce poverty more effectively.  相似文献
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从生态抑制型贫困的概念与内涵,形成原因以及措施和政策三方面综述了国内外关于生态抑制型贫困研究的最新动态。认为生态抑制型贫困治理未来应进一步探索若干具有更广普适性、有效性和可持续性的扶贫模式和机制,构建实现减贫和生态保护双重目标的跨区域合作减贫机制和模式,形成政府引导、多元化主体参与、市场运作的扶贫机制,特别需要加强对连片贫困区域进行针对性研究,为全国其他生态抑制型贫困区域提供经验借鉴。  相似文献
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This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (Penneaus monodon) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.  相似文献
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Sub‐Saharan Africa continues to face the daunting challenge of alleviating poverty due to slow economic growth. In southern Africa, most countries are adopting policies that promote the integration of biodiversity conservation and rural development to contribute to rural poverty alleviation. Numerous approaches have been undertaken in this endeavour, including Transfrontier Parks (TFPs) and Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs). This paper discusses some of the limitations of the TFPs. In conclusion I posit that unlike TFPs, which are state controlled and managed, TFCAs, which promote multi‐land use and multi‐stakeholder participation are attainable and have a higher probability of sustaining biodiversity conservation and contributing to the alleviation of rural poverty, if: (i) areas of high biodiversity conservation within communal areas can be identified, zoned and leveraged to biodiversity conservation and managed in partnership between the communities and the private sector; (ii) local communities can secure legal rights to their customary land being devoted to biodiversity conservation and use such pieces of land as collateral in negotiating partnerships with the private sector in developing conservation‐based enterprises; (iii) functional community natural resource governance institutions can be established and empowered to represent their constituencies in securing fair equity from profits made from sustainable use of the conserved biodiversity assets and tourism businesses; (iv) concerted effort can be invested in developing and implementing family planning and fertility reduction strategies that would slow down human population growth to levels that can be sustained by the available natural resources; and (v) if sustainable financing mechanisms can be developed, and the governance of protected areas occurring in the TFCAs can be broadened to include other stakeholders.  相似文献
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Pigeonpea is a tropical grain legume grown mainly in India. Though largely considered an orphan crop, pigeonpea has a huge untapped potential for improvement both in quantity and quality of production in Africa. More than any other legume adapted to the region, pigeonpea uniquely combines optimal nutritional profiles, high tolerance to environmental stresses, high biomass productivity and most nutrient and moisture contributions to the soil. The legume can be utilized in several diverse ways while the high genetic variability that exists within the cultivated and wild relatives remains to be explored for further uses. This article highlights the need for popularizing pigeonpea as a major legume crop in Africa. The main constraints to productivity are discussed and recent breeding efforts in Africa highlighted. Important opportunities for improvement are further provided.  相似文献
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Poverty is rampant in the rural areas of Pakistan, where people are in a state of deprivation with regard to incomes, clothing, housing, healthcare, education, sanitary facilities and human rights. Agriculture generates nearly 20.9 percent of the country's GDP and provides employment for 43.4 percent of its workforce. Most importantly, 65.9 percent of the population living in rural areas is directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Rising population, shrinking agricultural land, increasing demand for water resources, widespread land degradation and inadequate infrastructure appear to be major concerns of the agriculture sector in Pakistan. An attempt has been made to examine the population growth–agriculture growth–poverty alleviation linkage. It is argued that agriculture will continue to be one of the most important sectors of Pakistan's economy for years to come. To alleviate poverty, it is suggested that Pakistan enhance the productivity of the agriculture sector through the provision of a series of inputs including provision of easy credit to the small farmer, availability of quality fertilizers and pesticides, tractor and harvester services, improvement in the effectiveness of the vast irrigation system and, finally, farmer education. It is concluded that the high rate of population growth needs to be curbed for increased agricultural productivity to have any significant effect on poverty in rural areas of Pakistan.  相似文献
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