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1.
层次分析法在城市生态环境质量评价中的应用   总被引:30,自引:1,他引:29  
喻良  伊武军 《四川环境》2002,21(4):38-40
根据层次分析法的基本原理,在城市生态环境质量评价中建立各层次模型,并以福州市为例,通过对该市近年来城市生态环境质量的评价结果分析,对今后城市规划提出建议,为以后建设生态城市提供直接服务。  相似文献
2.
We analyzed the relation of the amount and spatial pattern of land cover with stream fish communities, in-stream habitat, and baseflow in 47 small southeastern Wisconsin, USA, watersheds encompassing a gradient of predominantly agricultural to predominantly urban land uses. The amount of connected impervious surface in the watershed was the best measure of urbanization for predicting fish density, species richness, diversity, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) score; bank erosion; and base flow. However, connected imperviousness was not significantly correlated with overall habitat quality for fish. Nonlinear models were developed using quantile regression to predict the maximum possible number of fish species, IBI score, and base flow for a given level of imperviousness. At watershed connected imperviousness levels less than about 8%, all three variables could have high values, whereas at connected imperviousness levels greater than 12% their values were inevitably low. Connected imperviousness levels between 8 and 12% represented a threshold region where minor changes in urbanization could result in major changes in stream condition. In a spatial analysis, connected imperviousness within a 50-m buffer along the stream or within a 1.6-km radius upstream of the sampling site had more influence on stream fish and base flow than did comparable amounts of imperviousness further away. Our results suggest that urban development that minimizes amount of connected impervious surface and establishes undeveloped buffer areas along streams should have less impact than conventional types of development.  相似文献
3.
成都市区酸雨变化及降雨化学组成分析   总被引:26,自引:2,他引:24  
依据成都市1995~2003年城区酸雨监测统计资料,本文对成都市城区酸雨的变化特征、离子化学组成进行了分析。结果表明:城区降水酸度变化呈现出一定的波动性,酸雨频变化表现出较大的波动性;1999年和2000年酸雨年均酸度及频率情况都较好,之后出现反弹;降水中离子含量高,雨水污染严重;降水中CSO2-的比值正在逐步缩小,酸雨状况转变为硫/CNO-34酸型和硝酸型并重的局面,大气污染物中NOx的贡献率正在升高。灰色关联分析表明:降水pH值与雨水中碱性阳离子的关联序为NH+4>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+>Na+;降水pH′值与雨水中酸性阴离子的关联序为Cl->F->SO2-3。4>NO-  相似文献
4.
This paper analyzes characteristics, major driving forces and alternative management measures of land-use change in Kunshan, Jiangsu province, China. The study used remote sensing (RS) maps and socio-economic data. Based on RS-derived maps, two change matrices were constructed for detecting land-use change between 1987 and 1994, and between 1994 and 2000 through pixel-to-pixel comparisons. The outcomes indicated that paddy fields, dryland, and forested land moderately decreased by 8.2%, 29% and 2.6% from 1987 to 1994, and by 4.1%, 7.6% and 8% from 1994 to 2000, respectively. In contrast, the following increased greatly from 1987 to 1994: artificial ponds by 48%, urban settlements by 87.6%, rural settlements by 41.1%, and construction land by 511.8%. From 1994 to 2000, these land covers increased by 3.6%, 28.1%, 23.4% and 47.1%, respectively. For the whole area, fragmentation of land cover was very significant. In addition, socio-economic data were used to analyze major driving forces triggering land-use change through bivariate analysis. The results indicated that industrialization, urbanization, population growth, and China's economic reform measures are four major driving forces contributing to land-use change in Kunshan. Finally, we introduced some possible management measures such as urban growth boundary (UGB) and incentive-based policies. We pointed out that, given the rapidity of the observed changes, it is critical that additional studies be undertaken to evaluate these suggested policies, focusing on what their effects might be in this region, and how these might be implemented.  相似文献
5.
城市土地利用评价指标体系构建   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
在阐述指标体系构建原则的基础上,采用目标法建立了由三大主目标、八大子目标和系列评价指标构成的城市土地利用评价指标体系。其中三大主目标是指城市土地利用的高效化、集约化与协调化;八大子目标是指人地资源关系合理化、土地利用集约化、土地利用结构合理化、土地利用高效化、土地利用与人口发展协调化、土地利用与经济发展协调化、土地利用与环境发展协调化、城郊土地利用协调化。  相似文献
6.
城市化进程中的土地资源优化配置   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
土地资源的优化配置是目前我国城市化进程中面临的重要问题.在分析城市化的内涵和我国城市化进程的基础上,运用定性与定量相结合的方法,明确了城市化进程与土地资源优化配置的密切关系,阐述了城市化进程中土地利用存在的四大问题,提出了五大对策,以确保城市化进程中土地资源的优化配置.  相似文献
7.
我国城市大气污染现状与特点   总被引:14,自引:1,他引:13  
张继娟  魏世强 《四川环境》2006,25(3):104-108,112
中国城市化和工业化的快速发展与能源消耗的迅速增加,给中国城市带来了很多空气污染问题。20世纪70年代期间,煤烟型污染排放成为中国工业城市的特点;80年代,许多南方城市遭受严重的酸雨危害;近年来,汽车尾气排放的NOx、CO及随后形成的光化学烟雾,使得许多大城市的空气质量恶化。城市空气污染影响着城市居民的健康和城市的发展。为控制空气污染和保护大气环境质量,我国政府已经实施了许多规划。本文概述了当前中国城市特别是重点城市的空气质量状况,描述一些主要城市空气污染物包括总悬浮颗粒、PM10、PM2.5、SO2、酸雨、NOx/NO2的特点。尽管采取了很多应对措施,但目前我国城市的空气质量依然不容乐观,文中还讨论了未来城市空气污染控制面临的问题。  相似文献
8.
Effective water quality management of streams in urbanized basins requires identification of the elements of urbanization that contribute most to pollutant concentrations and loads. Drainage connection (the proportion of impervious area directly connected to streams by pipes or lined drains) is proposed as a variable explaining variance in the generally weak relationships between pollutant concentrations and imperviousness. Fifteen small streams draining independent subbasins east of Melbourne, Australia, were sampled for a suite of water quality variables. Geometric mean concentrations of all variables were calculated separately for baseflow and storm events, and these, together with estimates of runoff derived from a rainfall-runoff model, were used to estimate mean annual loads. Patterns of concentrations among the streams were assessed against patterns of imperviousness, drainage connection, unsealed (unpaved) road density, elevation, longitude (all of which were intercorrelated), septic tank density, and basin area. Baseflow and storm event concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), total phosphorus (TP) and ammonium, along with electrical conductivity (EC), all increased with imperviousness and its correlates. Hierarchical partitioning showed that DOC, EC, FRP, and storm event TP were independently correlated with drainage connection more strongly than could be explained by chance. Neither pH nor total suspended solids concentrations were strongly correlated with any basin variable. Oxidized and total nitrogen concentrations were most strongly explained by septic tank density. Loads of all variables were strongly correlated with imperviousness and connection. Priority should be given to low-impact urban design, which primarily involves reducing drainage connection, to minimize urbanization-related pollutant impacts on streams.  相似文献
9.
基于信息熵的武汉城市土地利用空间结构变动分析   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
借助城市土地利用空间结构的信息熵和均衡度概念,揭示了武汉城市在20世纪90年代土地利用结构的空间变化规律,得出土地利用职能类型收缩、城市用地趋向不均衡发展态势的结论.利用主成分与灰色关联相结合的方法找出影响武汉城市土地利用空间结构变动的主要动力因子,它们分别是城市福利和城市社会结构变化推动因子、城市产业结构变化拉动因子和城市建设与改造压力因子,其中后两个因子是驱动城市土地利用空间发生变化的最显著性因子.  相似文献
10.
A methodology is developed to relate urban growth studies to distributed hydrological modeling using an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS. This linkage is possible because both studies share land-use and land-cover data. Landsat Thematic Mapper data are utilized to detect urban land-cover changes. GIS analyses are then conducted to examine the changing spatial patterns of urban growth. The integration of remote sensing and GIS is applied to automate the estimation of surface runoff based on the Soil Conservation Service model. Impacts of urban growth on surface runoff and the rainfall–runoff relationship are examined by linking the two modeling results with spatial analysis techniques. This methodology is applied to the Zhujiang Delta of southern China, where dramatic urban growth has occurred over the past two decades, and the rampant urban growth has created severe problems in water resources management. The results revealed a notably uneven spatial pattern of urban growth and an increase of 8.10 mm in annual runoff depth during the 1989–1997 period. An area that experienced more urban growth had a greater potential for increasing annual surface runoff. Highly urbanized areas were more prone to flooding. Urbanization lowered potential maximum storage, and thus increased runoff coefficient values.  相似文献
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