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The atmospheric concentrations of carbonyls and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene) were measured simultaneously at a same sampling site in Beijing from September 2008 to August 2010. The average concentrations of the total measured carbonyls during autumn, winter, spring, and summer were 37.7, 31.3, 39.7, 50.5 μg/m3, respectively, and maximal values for their diurnal variations usually happened at noontime. In contrast to carbonyls, the average concentrations of the total measured BTEX during the four seasons were 27.2, 31.9, 23.2, 19.1 μg/m3, respectively, and minimal values for their diurnal variations always occurred in the early afternoon. The average concentration for carbonyls increased about 24% from September 2008-August 2009 to September 2009-August 2010, for BTEX, increased about 15%. Integrated life time cancer risks for three carcinogens (benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in Beijing exceeded the value of 1E-06, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk of exposure to formaldehyde exceeded unity.  相似文献
2.
Hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
The hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer coupled to a cavity ring-down spectrometer and a nephelometer. AAS particles do not exhibit a deliquescence phenomenon and show a monotonic increase in diameter as the relative humidity (RH) ascends. Hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) for 40, 100 and 150 nm alkylaminium sulfate particles do not show an apparent Kelvin effect when RH is less than 45%, whereas GFs of the salt aerosols increase with initial particle size when RH is higher than 45%. Calculation using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule suggests that hygroscopic growth of triethylaminium sulfate-ammonium sulfate mixtures is non-deliquescent, occurring at very low RH, implying that the displacement of ammonia by amine will significantly enhance the hygroscopicity of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols. In addition, light extinction of AAS particles is a combined effect of both scattering and absorption under dry conditions, but is dominated by scattering under wet conditions.  相似文献
3.
A sound scientific understanding of the factors affecting the environment is essential to guarantee the sustainable development of the world's economic and societal activities.Many environmental issues,such as air quality and climate change are intimately linked to atmospheric chemistry and physics,therefore research in these areas is of tremendous importance.Both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions contribute greatly to the chemical composition of the atmosphere.Even though the atmosphere is a self-cleaning system through its photochemically-driven reactions,the hazardous direct impacts of primary and secondary pollutants on human health and ecosystems are observable and have been evidenced on different scales from local to global (e.g.ozone hole,climate change,air quality…).The chemical processing of the species present in the atmosphere is one of the most important players in driving the evolution of the atmosphere.  相似文献
4.
Preface          下载免费PDF全文
正Air pollution as well as climate change and their possible effects on the environment,ecosystems and human health,are pressing challenges.Nowadays,it is clear that sustainable societal development cannot remain solely wealth-oriented,but must take into account the present and future environmental issues.However,this approach is possible only if scientifically sound knowledge in all environmental areas becomes available to our societies and decision makers,which requires a firm  相似文献
5.
Understanding the formation mechanisms of secondary air pollution is very important for the formulation of air pollution control countermeasures in China. Thus, a large-scale outdoor atmospheric simulation smog chamber was constructed at Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (the CRAES Chamber), which was designed for simulating the atmospheric photochemical processes under the conditions close to the real atmospheric environment. The chamber consisted of a 56-m3 fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon film reactor, an electrically-driven stainless steel alloy shield, an auxiliary system, and multiple detection instrumentations. By performing a series of characterization experiments, we obtained basic parameters of the CRAES chamber, such as the mixing ability, the background reactivity, and the wall loss rates of gaseous compounds (propene, NO, NO2, ozone) and aerosols (ammonium sulfate). Oxidation experiments were also performed to study the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), including α-pinene ozonolysis, propene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation. Temperature and seed effects on the vapor wall loss and SOA yields were obtained in this work: higher temperature and the presence of seed could reduce the vapor wall loss; SOA yield was found to depend inversely on temperature, and the presence of seed could increase SOA yield. The seed was suggested to be used in the chamber to reduce the interaction between the gas phase and chamber walls. The results above showed that the CRAES chamber was reliable and could meet the demands for investigating tropospheric chemistry.  相似文献
6.
Atmospheric carbonyls were measured at a semi-urban site in Orléans, France, from October 2010to July2011. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were found to be the most abundant carbonyls, with average concentrations of 3.1, 1.0, 2.0 ppb, respectively in summer, 2.3, 0.7, 2.2 ppb, respectively in autumn, 2.2, 1.0, 2.1 ppb, respectively in spring,and 1.5, 0.7, 1.1 ppb, respectively in winter. Photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) was found to make a remarkable contribution to atmospheric carbonyls in the semi-urban site based on the distinct seasonal and diurnal variations of the carbonyls, as well as the significantly positive correlations between the carbonyls and ozone. The significantly negative correlations between NO x and O_3 as well as the carbonyls and the positive correlations between wind speed and O_3 as well as the carbonyls implied that the carbonyls and O_3 at the semi-urban site were probably formed during air mass transport from neighboring cities.  相似文献
7.
正Clean air is essential to people's health and that of the environment.Since the industrial revolution,however,the quality of the air that people breathe has deteriorated considerably—mainly as a result of human activities.Rising industrial and energy production,the burning of fossil fuels and the dramatic rise in traffic all contribute to air pollution in our cities which,in turn,can lead to serious health problems for instance  相似文献
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