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Spatial distribution patterns of total mercury (THg) in 36 surficial sediment samples representing five regions of Lake Taihu were assessed using the ArcGis geostatistical analyst module. The pollution levels of THg were also evaluated from the same five lake regions. Concentrations of THg were in a ranged of 23-168 ng/g (mean 55 ng/g) in surfical sediments, which was significantly higher than those established baseline levels of the lake. Results of THg indicated that the northern region exhibited notably higher values, the bay regions showed elevated values relative to open areas, and the lakeside regions were higher than those observed in the central area. Lake Taihu suffered moderate to high Hg pollution, and expressed clear Hg enrichment status according to monomial pollution index I geo and human activity factors. The concentrations of THg in the surficial sediments of Lake Taihu showed moderate-strong variation (coefficient of variation 52%). Geostatistical analysis indicated a weak spatial self-correlation, suggesting the contamination of Hg in Lake Taihu is primarily the result of anthropogenic activities.  相似文献
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The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.  相似文献
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To explore eutrophication and algal bloom mechanisms in channel type reservoirs, a novel enclosure experiment was conducted by changing light intensity (LI) in the Daning River of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Square enclosures (side 5.0 m) were covered on the surface with shading materials of different thickness, and with their bases open to the river. Changes and characteristics of the main eutrophication factors under the same water quality and hydrodynamic conditions but different LI were evaluated. All experimental water samples were neutral and alkalescent, with high nitrogen and phosphate concentrations, low potassium permanganate index, stable water quality, and different LI. At the same water depth, LI decreased with increasing shade material, while dissolved oxygen and water temperature were both stable. The growth peak of phytoplankton was with light of 345-4390 lux underwater or 558-7450 lux above the water surface, and water temperature of 25.6-26.5℃. Algae were observed in all water samples, accounting for 6 phylum and 57 species, with algal density changing frequently. The results showed that significantly strong or weak light was unfavorable for phytoplankton growth and the function together with suitable temperature and LI and ample sunshine encouraged algal blooms under the same water quality and hydrodynamic conditions. Correlation analysis indicated that algae reduced gradually lengthwise along water depth in the same enclosure while pH became high. The power exponent relationship between chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and LI was found by curve fitting, that is Chl-a = K(LI)n.  相似文献
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In this work, a method was developed and optimized for the analysis of polyfluoroalkyl and/or perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) content in surface water and sediment samples with high instrumental response and good separation. Surface water and sediment samples were collected from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) to analyze the distribution characteristics of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPiAs), and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). The results showed that the total concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs in YRD varied from 31 to 902 ng/L. PFCAs (≥ 11 carbons) and PFSAs (≥ 10 carbons atoms) were not detected in any surface water samples. The mean concentrations of all PFCAs and PFSAs in surface water from the sampling areas decreased in the following order: Yangtze river (191 ng/L) ≈ Taihu lake (189 ng/L) > Huangpu river (122 ng/L) ≈ Qiantang river (120 ng/L) > Jiaxing urban river (100 ng/L). Strong significant (p < 0.05) correlations between the concentrations of many of the compounds were found in the sampling areas, suggesting a common source for these compounds. Only perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was observed in all sediment samples, at concentrations varying from 0.02 to 1.35 ng/g. Finally, detection rates of two diPAPs were only 8% and 10%, respectively and the concentration of diPAPs was two to three times lower compared to PFCAs and PFSAs.  相似文献
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Yanghe Reservoir is an important source of drinking water for Qinhuangdao City,North China;however,in recent decades this water source has been eutrophic with recurrent summer cyanobacterial blooms.The trophic grade of the system in summer was mesotrophiceutrophic in 1990 and became hypertrophic in 2011.The nutrient availability is extremely high during the entire year,and the water temperature should be the primary driver of the summer blooms.In May-October of 2010 and 2011,abrupt variations were observed in the Secchi depth(SD) and chlorophyll a(Chl-a),and both the correlated analysis of Chl-a-SD and trophic status indices(TSI) deviation(TSI Chl-a-TSI SD) showed that algal cell density dominated light attenuation.During the algal bloom outbreak,the microcystin concentration was found to vary between 0.35-2.12 μg/L in 2010 and 0.11-1.86 μg/L in 2011.The maximum microcystin content was more than two times the safety limit required for drinking water.Inflow discharges were most concentrated in the summer,with periods of lower residence time and the largest water level fluctuation over the entire year.When a high availability of nutrients promoted a high Chl-a concentration in the whole system,it appeared that the instability caused by the decrease in residence time could not produce effective changes in the cyanobacterial abundance.The results indicated that nutrient enrichment in the aquatic systems of Yanghe Reservoir is the most serious problem and that the status would not been modified effectively by increasing hydrological fluctuations(e.g.,decreasing the residence time).Therefore,decreasing the nutrient concentrations is the only route to improve the water quality of this reservoir.  相似文献
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