首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   10637篇
  免费   2576篇
  国内免费   1058篇
安全科学   894篇
废物处理   570篇
环保管理   770篇
综合类   5619篇
基础理论   1625篇
污染及防治   3459篇
评价与监测   443篇
社会与环境   467篇
灾害及防治   424篇
  2024年   4篇
  2023年   205篇
  2022年   554篇
  2021年   511篇
  2020年   416篇
  2019年   332篇
  2018年   373篇
  2017年   480篇
  2016年   475篇
  2015年   542篇
  2014年   747篇
  2013年   1051篇
  2012年   884篇
  2011年   919篇
  2010年   704篇
  2009年   618篇
  2008年   732篇
  2007年   569篇
  2006年   551篇
  2005年   400篇
  2004年   295篇
  2003年   333篇
  2002年   309篇
  2001年   251篇
  2000年   288篇
  1999年   301篇
  1998年   235篇
  1997年   228篇
  1996年   199篇
  1995年   159篇
  1994年   119篇
  1993年   123篇
  1992年   106篇
  1991年   81篇
  1990年   36篇
  1989年   34篇
  1988年   26篇
  1987年   17篇
  1986年   14篇
  1985年   10篇
  1984年   6篇
  1983年   4篇
  1982年   9篇
  1981年   6篇
  1979年   2篇
  1974年   2篇
  1973年   3篇
  1972年   3篇
  1970年   1篇
  1931年   1篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
Check-dams are the most common structures for controlling soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. However, the effect of check-dams on carbon sequestration, along with sediment transport and deposition, has not been assessed over large areas. In this study, we evaluated the carbon sequestration function of check-dams in the Loess Plateau. The results indicate that there were approximately 11 000 check-dams distributed in the Loess Plateau, with an estimate of the amount of sediment of 21 × 109 m3 and a soil organic carbon storage amount of 0.945 Pg. Our study reveals that check-dams in the Loess Plateau not only conserve soil and water but also sequester carbon.  相似文献   
2.
聚丙烯酸钠作为调理剂对好氧堆肥的保氮影响   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
实验以污泥、锯末、猪粪为原料,以聚丙烯酸钠(PAAS)为调理剂,利用自制好氧堆肥反应器,研究了PAAS在污泥好氧堆肥中的保氮效果。实验显示,PAAS会提高堆体的pH水平,抑制氨氮的生成,从而减少NH3的挥发源,在PAAS对水溶性氨的吸附作用下,堆肥产品的最终氨氮水平依然得到提高;PAAS对硝化反应有一定的促进作用,添加PAAS的堆体在堆肥周期内的硝氮平均增幅可达到未添加PAAS的空白堆体的4.64倍;添加PAAS的堆体在堆肥周期内全氮平均降幅只有空白堆体的52.24%。PAAS做为堆肥调理剂起到了较为明显的保氮效果。  相似文献   
3.
Fresh leachate, generated in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, contains various pollutants with extremely high strength organics, which usually requires expensive and complex treatment processes. This study investigated the feasibility of blending treatment of MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater. Fresh MSWI leachate was pretreated by coagulation–flocculation with FeCl3 2 g/L and CaO 25 g/L, plate-and-frame filter press, followed by ammonia stripping at pH above 12. After that, blending treatment was carried out in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for approximately 3 months. Different operational modes consisting of different pretreated leachate and methanol addition levels were tested, and their performances were evaluated. Results showed that throughout the experimental period, monitored parameters in the WWTP effluent, including COD (<60 mg/L), BOD5 (<20 mg/L), ammonium (<8 mg/L), phosphorus (<1.5 mg/L) and heavy metals, generally complied with the Chinese sewage discharged standard. Under the experimental conditions, a certain amount of methanol was needed to fulfill TN removal. An estimation of the operation cost revealed that the expenditure of blending treatment was much lower than the total costs of respective treatment of MSWI leachate and municipal wastewater. The outcomes indicated that blending treatment could not only improve the treatability of the MSWI leachate, but also reduce the treatment cost of the two different wastewaters.  相似文献   
4.
A CFD scheme was presented for modeling municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in a moving-grate incinerator, including the in-bed burning of solid wastes, the out-of-bed burnout of gaseous volatiles, and the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process between urea (CO(NH2)2) and NOx. The in-bed calculations provided 2-D profiles of the gas–solid temperatures and the gas species concentrations along the bed length, which were then used as inlet conditions for the out-of-bed computations. The over-bed simulations provided the profiles of incident radiation heat flux on the top of bed. A 3-dimensional benchmark simulation was conducted with a 750 t/day commercial incinerator using the present coupling scheme incorporating with a reduced SNCR reduction mechanism. Numerical tests were performed to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as injection position, injection speed and the normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) on the SNCR performance. The simulation results showed that the distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NOx concentration were highly non-uniform, which made the injection position one of the most sensitive operating parameters influencing the SNCR performance of moving grate incinerators. The simulation results also showed that multi-layer injections were needed to meet the EU2000 standard, and a NSR 1.5 was suggested as a compromise of a satisfactory NOx reduction and reasonable NH3 slip rates. This work provided useful guides to the design and operation of SNCR process in moving-grate incinerators.  相似文献   
5.
The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of silica fume on stabilizing heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. In addition to compressive strength measurements, hydrated pastes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal-analyses (DTA/TG), and MAS NMR (27Al and 29Si) techniques. It was found that silica fume additions could effectively reduce the leaching of toxic heavy metals. At the addition of 20% silica fume, leaching concentrations for Cu, Pb and Zn of the hydrated paste cured for 7 days decreased from 0.32 mg/L to 0.05 mg/L, 40.99 mg/L to 4.40 mg/L, and 6.96 mg/L to 0.21 mg/L compared with the MSWI fly ash. After curing for 135 days, Cd and Pb in the leachates were not detected, while Cu and Zn concentrations decreased to 0.02 mg/L and 0.03 mg/L. The speciation of Pb and Cd by the modified version of the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) extractions showed that these metals converted into more stable state in hydrated pastes of MSWI fly ash in the presence of silica fume. Although exchangeable and weak-acid soluble fractions of Cu and Zn increased with hydration time, silica fume addition of 10% can satisfy the requirement of detoxification for heavy metals investigated in terms of the identification standard of hazardous waste of China.  相似文献   
6.
Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.  相似文献   
7.
Although many studies on municipal solid waste management (MSW management) were conducted under uncertain conditions of fuzzy, stochastic, and interval coexistence, the solution to the conventional linear programming problems of integrating fuzzy method with the other two was inefficient. In this study, a fuzzy-stochastic-interval linear programming (FSILP) method is developed by integrating Nguyen's method with conventional linear programming for supporting municipal solid waste management. The Nguyen's method was used to convert the fuzzy and fuzzy-stochastic linear programming problems into the conventional linear programs, by measuring the attainment values of fuzzy numbers and/or fuzzy random variables, as well as superiority and inferiority between triangular fuzzy numbers/triangular fuzzy-stochastic variables. The developed method can effectively tackle uncertainties described in terms of probability density functions, fuzzy membership functions, and discrete intervals. Moreover, the method can also improve upon the conventional interval fuzzy programming and two-stage stochastic programming approaches, with advantageous capabilities that are easily achieved with fewer constraints and significantly reduces consumption time. The developed model was applied to a case study of municipal solid waste management system in a city. The results indicated that reasonable solutions had been generated. The solution can help quantify the relationship between the change of system cost and the uncertainties, which could support further analysis of tradeoffs between the waste management cost and the system failure risk.  相似文献   
8.
Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined.  相似文献   
9.
有冰条件下撇油器回收溢油速率试验研究*   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
为评价一种进口多功能撇油器应对渤海冬季溢油的能力,试验分别对刷式、盘式、鼓式三种撇油头在无冰和有冰(冰密集度约5成)条件下进行收油速率测试。试验以100 L油品为基数,测出在各种组合条件下回收油品所需要的时间,并把鼓式撇油头在有冰条件下的泵速提高,再进行试验。结果发现三种撇油方式的回收速率不仅与撇油头类型有关,同时也取决于是否有冰;在有冰条件下,三种撇油头收油效果都受到影响,其中盘式撇油器受影响最大,无法回收溢油;在有冰条件下加大鼓式撇油头泵速会提高总回收速率,但含水率同时提高;对凝固原油,撇油器无能为力。试验结果对正确评估三种类型的撇油头在两种情况下的收油效果和相关单位应具备的清除溢油能力,以及今后引进设备提高应急能力将起到借鉴作用。  相似文献   
10.
为研究有机锡化合物对海洋生物抗氧化防御系统和神经系统的影响,以我国东南沿海常见的中下层增养殖鱼类红鳍笛鲷(Lutjanus erythopterus)幼鱼为实验生物,采用半静态毒性实验方法,分别研究了三丁基氯化锡(tributyltin chloride,TBTCl)的急性毒性和96 h暴露时间内对红鳍笛鲷幼鱼鳃、脑和...  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号