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Atmospheric BTEX compounds(benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain(NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations(25.8–236.0 μg/m3) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer’s house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5–1552.9 μg/m3. Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene(1.17 ± 0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers’ incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention.  相似文献
2.
Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in Beijing were intensively measured from March 2011 to June 2013. COS mixing ratios exhibited distinct seasonal variation, with a maximum average value of 849 ± 477 pptv in winter and a minimal value of 372 ± 115 pptv in summer. The seasonal variation of COS was mainly ascribed to the combined effects of vegetation uptake and anthropogenic emissions. Two types of significant linear correlations (R2 > 0.66) were found between COS and CO during the periods from May to June and from October to March, with slopes (ΔCOS/ΔCO) of 0.72 and 0.14 pptv/ppbv, respectively. Based on the emission ratios of COS/CO from various sources, the dominant anthropogenic sources of COS in Beijing were found to be vehicle tire wear in summer and coal burning in winter. The total anthropogenic emission of COS in Beijing was roughly estimated as 0.53 ± 0.02 Gg/year based on the local CO emission inventory and the ΔCOS/ΔCO ratios.  相似文献
3.
建设活动消耗了大量能源,研究建筑业能耗测算方法并分析其影响因素有助于建筑业的节能减排.采用投入产出生命周期评价模型测算建筑业能耗,分析建筑业能耗对部门间联系、部门能源强度和建筑业规模等因素变化的敏感性,提出部门对建筑业能耗的技术责任系数和结构责任系数,以判断部门在降低建筑业能耗中的责任.结果表明,2010年我国建筑业能耗为1.07×109t(以标准煤计);技术责任系数最大的部门是黑色金属冶炼及延压(0.489 8),其次是非金属矿物制品(0.479 8)和化工(0.211 8)等;除建筑业外,结构责任系数较大的部门包括非金属矿物制品(0.276 4)和黑色金属冶炼及延压(0.246 0)等;建筑业能耗对黑色金属冶炼及延压(0.243 8)和非金属矿物制品(0.203 4)等部门能源强度的变化最敏感.降低建筑业能耗应注重促进高能耗建材生产节能、强化建设活动科学管理、推广高性能低能耗材料应用、提高基础设施建设水平和深化住房市场化改革等方面.  相似文献
4.
Atmosphericmixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in Beijingwere intensivelymeasured from March 2011 to June 2013. COS mixing ratios exhibited distinct seasonal variation, with a maximumaverage value of 849 ± 477 pptv in winter and a minimal value of 372 ± 115 pptv in summer. The seasonal variation of COS was mainly ascribed to the combined effects of vegetation uptake and anthropogenic emissions. Two types of significant linear correlations (R2 > 0.66) were found between COS and CO during the periods from May to June and from October to March, with slopes (ΔCOS/ΔCO) of 0.72 and 0.14 pptv/ppbv, respectively. Based on the emission ratios of COS/CO from various sources, the dominant anthropogenic sources of COS in Beijing were found to be vehicle tire wear in summer and coal burning in winter. The total anthropogenic emission of COS in Beijing was roughly estimated as 0.53 ± 0.02 Gg/year based on the local CO emission inventory and the ΔCOS/ΔCO ratios.  相似文献
5.
Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate(PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate(PPN), and carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) were measured from September 2010 to August 2011 in Beijing. PAN exhibited low values from mid-autumn to early spring(October to March) with monthly average concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 0.73 ppbV, and increased from early spring to summer(March to August), ranging from 1.37–3.79 ppbV. The monthly variation of PPN was similar to PAN, with low values(below detection limit to 0.18 ppbV) from mid-autumn to early spring, and a monthly maximum in September(1.14 ppbV). The monthly variation of CCl4was tightly related to the variation of temperature, exhibiting a minimum in winter(69.3 pptV) and a maximum of 180.6 pptV in summer. Due to weak solar intensity and short duration, PAN and O3showed no distinct diurnal patterns from morning to night during winter, whereas for other seasons, they both exhibited maximal values in the late afternoon(ca. 15:00 to 16:00 local time) and minimal values during early morning and midnight. Good linear correlations between PAN and PPN were found in autumn(R = 0.91), spring(R = 0.94), and summer(R = 0.81), with slopes of 0.130, 0.222, and 0.133, respectively, suggesting that anthropogenic hydrocarbons dominated the photochemical formation of PANs in Beijing. Positive correlation between PAN and O3 in summer with the low slopes( O3 / PAN) ranging from 9.92 to 18.0 indicated serious air pollution in Beijing, and strong negative correlation in winter reflected strong O3consumption by NO titration and less thermal decompositin of PAN.  相似文献
6.
Photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS2) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was intensively studied in the water from the Aohai Lake of Beijing city. The lake water was found to be highly supersaturated with COS, CS2 and DMS, with their initial concentrations of 0.91 ± 0.073 nmol/L, 0.55 ± 0.071 nmol/L and 0.37 ± 0.062 nmol/L, respectively. The evident photochemical production of COS and CS2 in the lake water under irradiation of 365 nm and 302 nm indicated that photochemical production of them might be the reason for their supersaturation. The similar dependence of wavelength and oxygen for photochemical production of COS, CS2 and DMS implied that they might be from the same precursors. The water cage effect was found to favor COS production but inhibit CS2 and DMS formation, indicating that COS photochemical production was mainly from direct degradation of the precursors and the formation of CS2 and DMS needed intermediates via combination of carbon-centered radicals and sulfur-centered radicals. The above assumptions were further confirmed by simulation experiments with addition of carbonyls and amino acids (cysteine and methionine), and the photochemical formation mechanisms for COS, CS2 and DMS in water were derived from the investigations.  相似文献
7.
Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide(COS) in Beijing were intensively measured from March 2011 to June 2013. COS mixing ratios exhibited distinct seasonal variation, with a maximum average value of 849 ± 477 pptv in winter and a minimal value of 372 ± 115 pptv in summer. The seasonal variation of COS was mainly ascribed to the combined effects of vegetation uptake and anthropogenic emissions. Two types of significant linear correlations(R2> 0.66) were found between COS and CO during the periods from May to June and from October to March, with slopes(ΔCOS/ΔCO) of 0.72 and 0.14 pptv/ppbv, respectively. Based on the emission ratios of COS/CO from various sources, the dominant anthropogenic sources of COS in Beijing were found to be vehicle tire wear in summer and coal burning in winter. The total anthropogenic emission of COS in Beijing was roughly estimated as 0.53 ± 0.02 Gg/year based on the local CO emission inventory and the ΔCOS/ΔCO ratios.  相似文献
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