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Pure nano-Al13 and aggregates at various concentrations were prepared to examine the particle size effect of coagulation with inorganic polymer fiocculant. The property and stability of various species formed were characterized using Infrared, 27Al-NMR,photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and Ferron assay. Results showed that concentration and temperature exhibited different roles on the stability of Al13. The quantity of Alb species analyzed by ferron assay in the initial aging period corresponded well with that of Al13, which has been confirmed in a dimension range of 1-2 nm by PCS. Al13 solutions at high concentrations (0.5-2.11 mol/L)were observed to undergo further aggregation with aging. The aggregates with a wide particle size distribution would contribute to the disappeared/decreased Al13 basis on the 27Al-NMR spectrum, whereas a part of Al13 would still remain as Alb. At low concentrations,Al13 solution was quite stable at normal temperature, but lost its stability quickly when heating to 90°C.  相似文献
2.
In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of autohydrogenotrophic bacteria to treat nitrate from wastewater. However, our knowledge about the characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) releasing by these activities is not yet very advanced. This study aimed to investigate the change in EPS compositions under various pH values and hydrogen flow rates, taking into consideration nitrogen removal. Results showed that pH 7.5 and a hydrogen flow rate of 90 mL/min were the optimal operating conditions, resulting in 100% nitrogen removal after 6 hr of operation. Soluble and bound polysaccharides decreased, while bound proteins increased with increasing pH. Polysaccharides increased with increasing hydrogen flow rate. No significant change of bound proteins was observed at various hydrogen flow rates.  相似文献
3.
The cyanobacteria-bloom in raw waters frequently causes an unpredictable chemical dosing of preoxidation and coagulation for an effective removal of algal cells in water treatment plants. This study investigated the effects of preoxidation with NaOCl and ClO_2 on the coagulation-flotation effectiveness in the removal of two commonly blooming cyanobacteria species, Microcystis aeruginosa(MA) and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii(CR), and their corresponding trihalomethane(THM) formation potential. The results showed that dual dosing with NaOCl plus ClO_2 was more effective in enhancing the deformation of cyanobacterial cells compared to single dosing with Na OCl, especially for CR-rich water.Both preoxidation approaches for CR-rich water effectively reduced the CR cell count with less remained dissolved organic carbon(DOC), which benefited subsequent coagulation–flotation. However, preoxidation led to an adverse release of algogenic organic matter(AOM) in the case of MA-rich water. The release of AOM resulted in a poor removal in MA cells and a large amount of THM formation after oxidation-assisted coagulation-flotation process. The reduction in THM formation potential of CR-rich waters is responsible for effective algae and DOC removal by alum coagulation. It is concluded that the species-specific characteristic of cyanobacteria and their AOM released during chlorination significantly influences the performance of coagulation–flotation for AOM removal and corresponding THM formation.  相似文献
4.
The effects of C/N ratio of a nitrate-containing wastewater on nitrate removal performed by autohydrogenotrophic bacteria as well as on the morphological parameters of floc such as floc morphology, floc number distribution, mean particle size(MPS), aspect ratio and transparency were examined in this study. The results showed that the nitrate reduction rate increased with increasing C/N ratio from 0.5 to 10 and that the nitrogen removal of up to 95% was found at the C/N ratios of higher than 5(between 0.5–10). Besides, high C/N ratio values reflected a corresponding high nitrite accumulation after 12-hr operation, and a fast decreasing rate of nitrite in the rest of operational time. The final p H values increased with the C/N ratio increasing from 0.5 to 2.5, but decreased with the C/N ratio increasing from2.5 to 10. There were no significant changes in floc morphology with the MPSs ranging from35 to 40 μm. Small and medium-sized flocs were dominant in the sludge suspension, and the number of flocs increased with the increasing C/N ratios. Furthermore, the highest apparent frequency of 10% was observed at aspect ratios of 0.5 and 0.6, while the transparency of flocs changed from 0.1 to 0.7.  相似文献
5.
Complex organics contained in dye wastewater are difficult to degrade and often require electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) to treat it. Surface activation of the electrode used in such treatment is an important factor determining the success of the process. The performance of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BD-NCD) film electrode for decolorization of Acid Yellow (AY-36) azo dye with respect to the surface activation by electrochemical polarization was studied. Anodic polarization found to be more suitable as electrode pretreatment compared to cathodic one. After anodic polarization, the originally H-terminated surface of BD-NCD was changed into O-terminated, making it more hydrophilic. Due to the oxidation of surface functional groups and some portion of sp2 carbon in the BD-NCD film during anodic polarization, the electrode was successfully being activated showing lower background current, wider potential window and considerably less surface activity compared to the non-polarized one. Consequently, electrooxidation (EO) capability of the anodically-polarized BD-NCD to degrade AY-36 dye was significantly enhanced, capable of nearly total decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal even after several times of re-using. The BD-NCD film electrode favored acidic condition for the dye degradation; and the presence of chloride ion in the solution was found to be more advantageous than sulfate active species.  相似文献
6.
Pure nano-Al13 and aggregates at various concentrations were prepared to examine the particle size e ect of coagulation with inorganic polymer flocculant. The property and stability of various species formed were characterized using Infrared, 27Al-NMR, photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and Ferron assay. Results showed that concentration and temperature exhibited di erent roles on the stability of Al13. The quantity of Alb species analyzed by ferron assay in the initial aging period corresponded well with that of Al13, which has been confirmed in a dimension range of 1–2 nm by PCS. Al13 solutions at high concentrations (0.5–2.11 mol/L) were observed to undergo further aggregation with aging. The aggregates with a wide particle size distribution would contribute to the disappeared/decreased Al13 basis on the 27Al-NMR spectrum, whereas a part of Al13 would still remain as Alb. At low concentrations, Al13 solution was quite stable at normal temperature, but lost its stability quickly when heating to 90°C.  相似文献
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