首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  国内免费   1篇
  完全免费   8篇
  综合类   9篇
  2017年   3篇
  2016年   2篇
  2012年   2篇
  2011年   2篇
排序方式: 共有9条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1
1.
High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) is used in water quality research primarily to determine the molecular weight distribution of the dissolved organic matter (DOM), but by applying peak fitting to the chromatogram, this technique can also be used as a tool to model and predict DOM removal. Six low specific UV absorbance (SUVA) source waters were treated using coagulation with alum and both the source and treated water samples were analysed using HPSEC. By comparing the molecular weight profiles of the source and treated waters, it was established that several DOM components were not effectively removed by alum coagulation even after high dosage alum treatment. A peak-fitting technique was applied based on the concept of linking the character (molecular weight profile) of the recalcitrant organics in the treated water with those of the source water. This was then applied to predict DOM treatability by determining the areas of the peaks which were assigned to removable organics from the source water molecular weight profile after peak fitting, and this technique quantified the removable and non-removable organics. The prediction was compared with the actual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal determined from jar testing and showed good agreement, with variance between 2% and 10%. This confirmed that this prediction approach, which was originally developed for high SUVA waters, can also be applied successfully to predict DOC removal in low SUVA waters.  相似文献
2.
Correlations between raw water characteristics and pH after enhanced coagulation to maximize dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal using four typical coagulants (FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and high performance polyaluminum chloride (HPAC)) without pH control were investigated. These correlations were analyzed on the basis of the raw water quality and the chemical and physical fractionations of DOM of thirteen Chinese source waters over three seasons. It was found that the final pH after enhanced coagulation for each of the four coagulants was influenced by the content of removable DOM (i.e. hydrophobic and higher apparent molecular weight (AMW) DOM), the alkalinity and the initial pH of raw water. A set of feed-forward semi-empirical models relating the final pH after enhanced coagulation for each of the four coagulants with the raw water characteristics were developed and optimized based on correlation analysis. The established models were preliminarily validated for prediction purposes, and it was found that the deviation between the predicted data and actual data was low. This result demonstrated the potential for the application of these models in practical operation of drinking water treatment plants.  相似文献
3.
Pure nano-Al13 and aggregates at various concentrations were prepared to examine the particle size e ect of coagulation with inorganic polymer flocculant. The property and stability of various species formed were characterized using Infrared, 27Al-NMR, photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and Ferron assay. Results showed that concentration and temperature exhibited di erent roles on the stability of Al13. The quantity of Alb species analyzed by ferron assay in the initial aging period corresponded well with that of Al13, which has been confirmed in a dimension range of 1–2 nm by PCS. Al13 solutions at high concentrations (0.5–2.11 mol/L) were observed to undergo further aggregation with aging. The aggregates with a wide particle size distribution would contribute to the disappeared/decreased Al13 basis on the 27Al-NMR spectrum, whereas a part of Al13 would still remain as Alb. At low concentrations, Al13 solution was quite stable at normal temperature, but lost its stability quickly when heating to 90°C.  相似文献
4.
Pure nano-Al13 and aggregates at various concentrations were prepared to examine the particle size effect of coagulation with inorganic polymer fiocculant. The property and stability of various species formed were characterized using Infrared, 27Al-NMR,photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and Ferron assay. Results showed that concentration and temperature exhibited different roles on the stability of Al13. The quantity of Alb species analyzed by ferron assay in the initial aging period corresponded well with that of Al13, which has been confirmed in a dimension range of 1-2 nm by PCS. Al13 solutions at high concentrations (0.5-2.11 mol/L)were observed to undergo further aggregation with aging. The aggregates with a wide particle size distribution would contribute to the disappeared/decreased Al13 basis on the 27Al-NMR spectrum, whereas a part of Al13 would still remain as Alb. At low concentrations,Al13 solution was quite stable at normal temperature, but lost its stability quickly when heating to 90°C.  相似文献
5.
The management of chloramine decay and the prevention of nitrification are some of the critical issues faced by water utilities that use chloramine as a disinfectant. In this study, potential association between high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) data obtained with multiple wavelength Ultraviolet (UV) detection from two drinking water distribution systems in Australia and nitrification occurrence was investigated. An increase in the absorbance signal of HPSEC profiles with UV detection at λ = 230 nm between apparent molecular weights of 200 to 1000 Da was observed at sampling sites that experienced rapid chloramine decay and nitrification while its absorbance signal at λ = 254 nm decreased. A chloramine decay index (C.D.I) defined as the ratio of area beneath the HPSEC spectra at two different wavelengths of 230 and 254 nm, was used in assessing chloramine decay occurrences. The C.D.Is of waters at locations that experienced nitrification were consistently higher than locations not experiencing nitrification. A simulated laboratory study showed that the formation of nitrite/nitrate and/or soluble microbial products and/or the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) during nitrification may contribute to the C.D.I. increase. These findings suggest that C.D.I derived from HPSEC with multiple wavelength UV detection could be an informative index to track the occurrence of rapid chloramine decay and nitrification.  相似文献
6.
A model is developed to enable estimation of chloramine demand in full scale drinking water supplies based on chemical and microbiological factors that affect chloramine decay rate via nonlinear regression analysis method. The model is based on organic character (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA)) of the water samples and a laboratory measure of the microbiological (F m ) decay of chloramine. The applicability of the model for estimation of chloramine residual (and hence chloramine demand) was tested on several waters from different water treatment plants in Australia through statistical test analysis between the experimental and predicted data. Results showed that the model was able to simulate and estimate chloramine demand at various times in real drinking water systems. To elucidate the loss of chloramine over the wide variation of water quality used in this study, the model incorporates both the fast and slow chloramine decay pathways. The significance of estimated fast and slow decay rate constants as the kinetic parameters of the model for three water sources in Australia was discussed. It was found that with the same water source, the kinetic parameters remain the same. This modelling approach has the potential to be used by water treatment operators as a decision support tool in order to manage chloramine disinfection.  相似文献
7.
Minimizing particles in water is a key goal for improving drinking water quality and safety.The media filtration process, as the last step of the solid–liquid separation process, is largely influenced by the characteristics of flocs, which are formed and controlled within the coagulation process. In a laboratory-based study, the impacts of the physical characteristics of flocs formed using aluminum sulfate on the filtration treatment of two comparative water samples were investigated using a photometric dispersion analyzer and a filterability apparatus. In general, the optimum dosage for maximizing filterability was higher than that for minimizing turbidity under neutral pH conditions. For a monomeric aluminum-based coagulant, the charge neutralization mechanism produced better floc characteristics,including floc growth speed and size, than the sweep flocculation mechanism. In addition,the charge neutralization mechanism showed better performance compared to sweepflocculation in terms of DOC removal and floc filterability improvement for both waters,and showed superiority in turbidity removal only when the raw water had high turbidity.For the different mechanisms, the ways that floc characteristics impacted on floc filterability also differed. The low variation in floc size distribution obtained under the charge neutralization mechanism resulted in the flocs being amenable to removal by filtration processes. For the sweep flocculation mechanism, increasing the floc size improved the settling ability of flocs, resulting in higher filter efficiency.  相似文献
8.
Understanding the complexity of dissolved organic matter(DOM)in stormwater has drawn a lot of interest,since DOM from stormwater causes not only environmental impacts,but also worsens downstream aquatic quality associated with water supply and treatability.This study introduced and employed high-performance size exclusion chromatography(HPSEC)coupled with an ultraviolet–visible(UV–vis)diode array detector to assess changes in stormwater-associated DOM characteristics.Stormwater DOM was also analysed in relation to storm event characteristics,water quality and spectroscopic analysis.Statistical tools were used to determine the correlations within DOM and water quality measurements.Results showed that dissolved organic carbon(DOC)and UV absorbance at 254 nm(UV254)as conventional DOM parameters were found to be correlated well to the changes in stormwater quality during each of the three storm events studied.Both detector wavelengths(210and 254 nm)and their ratio(A210/A254)were found to provide additional information on the physiochemical properties of stormwater-associated DOM.This study indicated that A210/A254 is an important parameter which could be used to estimate the DOM proportions of functional groups and conjugated carbon species.This study provided also an understanding of stormwater quality constituents through assessing variability and sensitivity for various parameters,and the additional information of rainfall characteristics on runoff quality data for a better understanding of parameter correlations and influences.  相似文献
9.
This study examined the associations between dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics and potential nitrification occurrence in the presence of chloramine along a drinking water distribution system. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) coupled with a multiple wavelength detector (200–280 nm) was employed to characterise DOM by molecular weight distribution, bacterial activity was analysed using flow cytometry, and a package of simple analytical tools, such as dissolved organic carbon, absorbance at 254 nm, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and total disinfectant residual were also applied and their applicability to indicate water quality changes in distribution systems were also evaluated. Results showed that multi-wavelength HPSEC analysis was useful to provide information about DOM character while changes in molecule weight profiles at wavelengths less than 230 nm were also able to be related to other water quality parameters. Correct selection of the UV wavelengths can be an important factor for providing appropriate indicators associated with different DOM compositions. DOM molecular weight in the range of 0.2–0.5 kDa measured at 210 nm correlated positively with oxidised nitrogen concentration (r = 0.99), and the concentrations of active bacterial cells in the distribution system (r = 0.85). Our study also showed that the changes of DOM character and bacterial cells were significant in those sampling points that had decreases in total disinfectant residual. HPSEC-UV measured at 210 nm and flow cytometry can detect the changes of low molecular weight of DOM and bacterial levels, respectively, when nitrification occurred within the chloraminated distribution system.  相似文献
1
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号