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To understand the composition and major sources of aerosol particles in Lhasa City on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), individual particles were collected from 2 February to 8 March, 2013 in Tibet University. The mean concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 during the sampling were 25.7 ± 21.7 and 57.2 ± 46.7 μg/m3, respectively, much lower than those of other cities in East and South Asia, but higher than those in the remote region in TP like Nam Co, indicating minor urban pollution. Combining the observations with the meteorological parameters and back trajectory analysis, it was concluded that local sources controlled the pollution during the sampling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) was used to study 408 particles sampled on four days. Based on the EDS analysis, a total of 8 different particle categories were classified for all 408 particles, including Si-rich, Ca-rich, soot, K-rich, Fe-rich, Pb-rich, Al-rich and other particles. The dominant elements were Si, Al and Ca, which were mainly attributed to mineral dust in the earth's crust such as feldspar and clay. Fe-, Pb-, K-, Al-rich particles and soot mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like firework combustion and biomass burning during the sampling. During the sampling, the pollution mainly came from mineral dust, while the celebration ceremony and religious ritual produced a large quantity of anthropogenic metal-bearing particles on 9 and 25 February 2013. Cement particles also had a minor influence. The data obtained in this study can be useful for developing pollution control strategies.  相似文献
2.
本研究以城市剩余污泥预处理液作为底物,调节底物不同C/N比,测定了厌氧发酵过程中几种关键酶的酶活及发酵产物乙酸、丙酸及丁酸的浓度.同时,利用Matlab软件通过回归分析和函数拟合构建了C/N比-关键酶活-酸产量之间的多项式函数模型,发现所建立的二元三次多项式模型的拟合优度R2均大于0.9,且残差平方和较小,因此,判定二元三次多项式更适合描述C/N比-关键酶活-酸产量的数学关系.最后,建立了关键酶活、C/N比和产酸量三因素间的曲面模型,发现该模型能够很好地描述污泥厌氧发酵中C/N比条件对关键酶和产酸类型的影响,并能进一步预测C/N比所对应的酶活和产酸发酵类型,可为今后的实验研究及工程放大提供理论参考.  相似文献
3.
本研究设计了热碱预处理-半连续流厌氧发酵污泥处理工艺,探究了pH对热碱预处理污泥产酸性能的影响,同时对发酵液作为碳源回用于污水厂强化脱氮除磷进行了质量衡算.在30 L厌氧发酵罐中考察了偏中性(pH=6.5)和碱性(pH=10.0)条件下热碱预处理污泥发酵的挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)产生及分布、蛋白质及碳水化合物的消耗和氮磷释放情况.结果表明,污泥热碱预处理-半连续流厌氧发酵工艺的VFA产量稳定,在pH为6.5和10.0的条件下,发酵罐中平均VFA产率分别为333.29 mg·g-1(以每g VS产生的COD(mg)计,下同)和250.64 mg·g-1,pH为6.5时产酸更稳定,且产量较高,但碱性条件更适合产乙酸.两种pH条件下的SCOD、溶解性蛋白质、溶解性多糖、氮和磷的释放都无较大差异.质量衡算结果表明,以处理量为50000 m3·d-1的城市污水处理厂为例,其产生的污泥经过热碱预处理-半连续流厌氧发酵产酸工艺,产生的VFA能够满足该污水处理厂脱氮除磷提标改造的碳源需求.  相似文献
4.
To understand the composition and major sources of aerosol particles in Lhasa City on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), individual particles were collected from 2 February to 8 March, 2013 in Tibet University. The mean concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 during the sampling were 25.7 ± 21.7 and 57.2 ± 46.7 μg/m3, respectively, much lower than those of other cities in East and South Asia, but higher than those in the remote region in TP like Nam Co, indicating minor urban pollution. Combining the observations with the meteorological parameters and back trajectory analysis, it was concluded that local sources controlled the pollution during the sampling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energydispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) was used to study 408 particles sampled on four days. Based on the EDS analysis, a total of 8 different particle categories were classified for all 408 particles, including Si-rich, Ca-rich, soot, K-rich, Fe-rich, Pb-rich, Al-rich and other particles. The dominant elements were Si, Al and Ca, which were mainly attributed to mineral dust in the earth's crust such as feldspar and clay. Fe-, Pb-, K-, Al-rich particles and soot mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like firework combustion and biomass burning during the sampling. During the sampling, the pollution mainly came from mineral dust, while the celebration ceremony and religious ritual produced a large quantity of anthropogenic metal-bearing particles on 9 and 25 February 2013. Cement particles also had a minor influence. The data obtained in this study can be useful for developing pollution control strategies.  相似文献
5.
To understand the composition and major sources of aerosol particles in Lhasa City on the Tibetan Plateau(TP), individual particles were collected from 2 February to 8 March, 2013 in Tibet University. The mean concentrations of both PM2.5and PM10 during the sampling were25.7 ± 21.7 and 57.2 ± 46.7 μg/m3, respectively, much lower than those of other cities in East and South Asia, but higher than those in the remote region in TP like Nam Co, indicating minor urban pollution. Combining the observations with the meteorological parameters and back trajectory analysis, it was concluded that local sources controlled the pollution during the sampling. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) combined with energydispersive X-ray spectra(EDS) was used to study 408 particles sampled on four days. Based on the EDS analysis, a total of 8 different particle categories were classified for all 408 particles, including Si-rich, Ca-rich, soot, K-rich, Fe-rich, Pb-rich, Al-rich and other particles.The dominant elements were Si, Al and Ca, which were mainly attributed to mineral dust in the earth’s crust such as feldspar and clay. Fe-, Pb-, K-, Al-rich particles and soot mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like firework combustion and biomass burning during the sampling. During the sampling, the pollution mainly came from mineral dust,while the celebration ceremony and religious ritual produced a large quantity of anthropogenic metal-bearing particles on 9 and 25 February 2013. Cement particles also had a minor influence. The data obtained in this study can be useful for developing pollution control strategies.  相似文献
6.
Atmospheric pollutants including SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were monitored continuously from March 2014 to February 2015 to investigate characteristics of air pollution at Lhasa, Tibetan Plateau. Species exhibited similar seasonal variations except O3, with the peaks in winter but low valleys in summer. The maximum O3 concentration was observed in spring, followed by summer, autumn, and winter. The positive correlation between O3 and PM10 in spring indicated similar sources of them, and was assumed to be turbulent transport. Temperature was the dominant meteorological factor for most species in spring. High temperature accelerates O3 photochemistry, and favors air disturbance which is conductive to dust resuspension in spring. Relative humidity (RH) and atmospheric pressure were the main meteorological factors in summer. RH showed negative correlations with species, while atmospheric pressure posed opposite situation. Wind speed (WS) was the dominant meteorological factor in autumn, the negative correlations between WS and species indicated diffusion by wind. Most species showed non-significant correlations with meteorological factors in winter, indicating the dependence of pollution on source emission rather than restriction by meteorology. Pollution weather character indicated that emissions were from biomass burning and dust suspension, and meteorological factors also played an important role. Air stream injection from the stratosphere was observed during O3 pollution period. Air parcels from Southwest Asia were observed during air pollution period in winter. An enhancement in air pollutants such as O3 would be expected in the future, more attention should be given to countermeasures for prevention of air pollution in the future.  相似文献
7.
The α-pinene ozonolysis under the different environmental conditions were observed in a smog chamber. The second-order rate constant(k) was determined to be(7.25 ± 0.06) ×10~(–17)cm~3/(molecule·sec) under 20% of relative humidity(RH) and room temperature. RH showed a marked influence on the α-pinene ozonolysis. The value of k increased with RH increase, which was 1.6 times faster at RH = 80% than that at RH = 20%. Additionally, the value of k apparently changed in the presence of the aerosol particles. The diesel soot increased the k value. The fly ash prohibited the reaction, however, H_2SO_4-treated fly ash promoted the reaction. The information of products gained using FT-IR and SPAMS showed that pinonic acid, 10-hydroxy-pinonic acid and pinic acid could be generated during the α-pinene ozonolysis. Water molecules could take part in the formation of the products, and play a vital role in the degradation of α-pinene. The atmospheric residence time calculation showed that the ozonolysis in the atmosphere is an important way of the α-pinene consumption as compared to that reacted with OH during daytime. The results suggested that the degradation of α-pinene via the ozonization in the atmosphere may be affected greatly by RH, as well as the presence of aerosol particles. The ozonolysis reaction may be an important way of the α-pinene consumption during daytime.  相似文献
8.
Tunnel displays a typical semi-closed environment, and multitudes of the pollutants tend to accumulate. The samples of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter(PM) were collected from the Xiangyin tunnel at Shanghai to investigate the characteristics of the pollutant emissions. The results indicated that both gaseous pollutants and PM exhibited much higher concentrations during the rush hours in the morning and at night due to vehicle emission. Two peaks of the PM concentration were observed in the scope of 0.7‐1.1 and 3.3–4.7 μm, accounting for 14.6% and 20.3% of the total concentrations, respectively.Organic matter(OM), EC, and many water-soluble ions were markedly higher at the rush hours in the morning than those at night, implicating comprehensive effects of vehicle types and traffic volume. The particle number concentrations exhibited two peaks at Aitken mode(25 nm and 100 nm) and accumulation mode(600 nm), while the particle volume concentration displayed high values at the accumulation mode(100–500 nm) and coarse mode(2.5–4.0 μm). The peak around 100 nm was detected in the morning rush hours, but it diminished with the decrease of the traffic volume. Individual-particle analysis revealed that main particles in the tunnel were Fe-rich particles, K-rich particles, mineral particles,Ca–S rich particles and Al–Si particles. The particles collected at the rush hours displayed marked different morphologies, element concentrations and particle sizes compared to the ones collected at the non-rush period. The data presented herein could shed a light on the feature of vehicle emissions.  相似文献
9.
In this study, iron speciation in five standard clay samples was characterized. Iron mobilization from these clays was then measured in acidic media. For comparison, a commercially available Arizona test dust(ATD) was also observed. The results showed that the free-Fe contents of clays were commonly lower than that of dust aerosols. The components of clays were dominant by the structural Fe held in the aluminosilicate lattice.The iron solubility of the clays were in the order of KGa-2 SWy-2 CCa-2 IMt-2 NAu-2. Based upon the M?ssbauer spectrum and transmission electron microscopy(TEM)analysis, the Fe(II) fraction and the Fe/Si ratio of clay particles changed after dissolution,suggesting the total Fe solubility depended on the Fe atom states existing within the aluminosilicate lattice. The Fe in KGa-2 and SWy-2 was most likely substituted for alkaline elements as the interlayer ions held by ionic bonds in the aluminosilicate, which are more liable to dissolution. However, the Fe in NAu-2 was more likely to be bound by strong covalent bonds in aluminosilicate mineral, which is less soluble. The much highly soluble Fe in ATD was not only linked to the dissolution of an appreciable fraction of Fe(II), but also could be attributed to the fact that the Fe bonds in the clay fraction of ATD were mainly present as ionic bonds. The TEM images showed that reacted clay particles displayed less aggregate particles, with nanoparticle aggregates and the Fe/S-rich tiny particles attached to the remains.  相似文献
10.
Volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are a kind of important precursors for ozone photochemical formation. In this study, VOCs were measured from November 5 th, 2013 to January 6 th, 2014 at the Second Jinshan Industrial Area, Shanghai, China. The results showed that the measured VOCs were dominated by alkanes(41.8%), followed by aromatics(20.1%), alkenes(17.9%), and halo-hydrocarbons(12.5%). The daily trend of the VOC concentration showed a bimodal feature due to the rush-hour traffic in the morning and at nightfall. Based on the VOC concentration, a receptor model of Positive Matrix Factorization(PMF) coupled with the information related to VOC sources was applied to identify the major VOC emissions. The result showed five major VOC sources: solvent use and industrial processes were responsible for about 30% of the ambient VOCs, followed by rubber chemical industrial emissions(23%), refinery and petrochemical industrial emissions(21%), fuel evaporations(13%) and vehicular emissions(13%). The contribution of generalized industrial emissions was about 74% and significantly higher than that made by vehicle exhaust. Using a propylene-equivalent method, alkenes displayed the highest concentration, followed by aromatics and alkanes. Based on a maximum incremental reactivity(MIR)method, the average hourly ozone formation potential(OFP) of VOCs is 220.49 ppbv. The most significant source for ozone chemical formation was identified to be rubber chemical industrial emissions, following one by vehicular emission. The data shown herein may provide useful information to develop effective VOC pollution control strategies in industrialized area.  相似文献
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