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Three lab-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs), including the non-aerated (NA), intermittently aerated (IA) and continuously aerated (CA) ones, were operated at different hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) to evaluate the effect of artificial aeration on the treatment efficiency of heavily polluted river water. Results indicated that artificial aeration increased the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in IA and CA, which significantly favored the removal of organic matter and NH4+-N. The DO grads caused by intermittent aeration formed aerobic and anoxic regions in IA and thus promoted the removal of total nitrogen (TN). Although the removal efficiencies of CODCr, NH4+-N and TN in the three VFCWs all decreased with an increase in HLR, artificial aeration enhanced the reactor resistance to the fluctuation of pollutant loadings. The maximal removal efficiencies of CODCr, NH4+-N and total phosphorus (TP) (i.e., 81%, 87% and 37%, respectively) were observed in CA at 19 cm/day HLR, while the maximal TN removal (i.e., 57%) was achieved in IA. Although the improvement of artificial aeration on TP removal was limited, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of applying artificial aeration to VFCWs treating polluted river water, particularly at a high HLR.  相似文献
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The chemistry associated with the disinfection of aquarium seawater is more complicated than that of freshwater, therefore limited information is available on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in marine aquaria. In this study, the effects of organic precursors, bromide (Br) and pre-ozonation on the formation and speciation of several typical classes of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THM4), haloacetic acids (HAAs), iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs), and haloacetamides (HAcAms), were investigated during the chlorination/chloramination of aquarium seawater. Results indicate that with an increase in dissolved organic carbon concentration from 4.5 to 9.4 mg/L, the concentrations of THM4 and HAAs increased by 3.2–7.8 times under chlorination and by 1.1–2.3 times under chloramination. An increase in Br concentration from 3 to 68 mg/L generally enhanced the formation of THM4, I-THMs and HAcAms and increased the bromine substitution factors of all studied DBPs as well, whereas it impacted insignificantly on the yield of HAAs. Pre-ozonation with 1 mg/L O3 dose substantially reduced the formation of all studied DBPs in the subsequent chlorination and I-THMs in the subsequent chloramination. Because chloramination produces much lower amounts of DBPs than chlorination, it tends to be more suitable for disinfection of aquarium seawater.  相似文献
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