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As a diagenetic progress, bioturbation influences solute exchange across the sediment-water interface (SWI). Different benthic animals have various mechanical activities in sediment, thereby they may have different effects on solute exchange across the SWI. This laboratory study examined the impacts of different benthic animals on phosphorus dynamics across the SWI. Tubificid worms and Chironomidae larvae were introduced as model organisms which, based on their mechanical activities, belong to upward-conveyors and gallery-diffusers, respectively. The microcosm simulation study was carried out with a continuous flow culture system, and all sediment, water, and worms and larvae specimens were sampled from Taihu Lake, China. To compare their bioturbation effects, the same biomass (17.1 g wet weight (ww)/m2) was adopted for worms and larvae.Worms altered no oxygen penetration depth in sediment, while larvae increased the O2 penetration depth, compared to the control treatment. Their emergence also enhanced sediment O2 uptake. The oxidation of ferrous iron in pore water produced ferric iron oxyhydroxides that adsorbed soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the overlying water and pore water. Larvae built obviously oxidized tubes with about 2 mm diameter and the maximum length of 6 cm in sediment, and significantly decreased ferrous iron and SRP in the pore water compared to the control and worms treatments. Worms constructed no visually-oxidized galleries in the sediment in contrast to larvae, and they did not significantly alter SRP in the pore water relative to the control treatment. The adsorption of ferric iron oxyhydroxides to SRP caused by worms and larvae inhibited SRP release from sediment. Comparatively, worms inhibited more SRP release than larvae based on the same biomass, as they successively renewed the ferric iron oxyhydroxides rich oxidation layer through their deposition.  相似文献
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Reconstruction of trace metal pollution histories and sources may help us to regulate current pollutant discharge. This is especially important for the highland lakes in southwestern China, which are facing trace metals pollution. We present sedimentary records of 11 metals accumulated in Yangzong Lake since the 1870's, a highland lake in southwestern China. Pollution of lead and zinc (Pb and Zn) was differentiated based on principal component analysis, geochemical normalization, and lead isotope ratios. Nearly all the metals as well as grain size composition show generally constant values before the mid-1980's, denoting stable detrital input in the catchment. Fluctuations in the concentrations of the metals as well as grain size composition since the mid-1980's indicate an increase in soil erosion with strengthened human disturbance in the catchment. After geochemical normalization, Pb and Zn showed constant values before 1990 AD and then a gradual increase in parallel with the variations in 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios, indicating that Pb and Zn pollution occurred. Combining the data of 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios in the sediments of Yangzong Lake, leaded gasoline, Pb-Zn ore and coal, and consumption or production historical trends, we deduced that the enhanced Pb and Zn pollution in Yangzong Lake is caused primarily by ore mining and refining.  相似文献
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刘佳  沈志强  周岳溪  曹蓉  李元志 《环境科学》2014,35(7):2639-2644
以聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)为固体碳源和生物膜载体,研究其脱氮性能以及添加惰性载体砾石对反应性能的影响.结果表明,PBS可作为反硝化固体碳源去除低C/N水体中的硝酸盐氮,但是所需的启动时间较长,为33 d左右.反硝化过程不会造成亚硝酸盐氮积累,但是会产生低于0.8 mg·L-1的氨氮.在PBS为碳源的反硝化体系中添加惰性载体来增加生物膜量,可以提高反硝化速率,PBS、PBS+30 g砾石、PBS+60 g砾石、PBS+90 g砾石4个体系的反硝化速率分别为5.33、7.04、10.05和6.93mg·(L·h)-1,反应均为零级反应.反硝化反应过程中(0~9 h),溶解性有机碳(DOC)先升高后降低,反应结束时(24 h),添加惰性载体砾石60 g和90 g体系的DOC分别为16.34 mg·L-1和19.22 mg·L-1,高于未添加砾石体系的13.48 mg·L-1.4个反硝化体系的pH值均低于初始值,是固体碳源降解过程中产生的酸性物质与反硝化产生的碱度综合作用的结果.  相似文献
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