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As a diagenetic progress, bioturbation influences solute exchange across the sediment-water interface (SWI). Different benthic animals have various mechanical activities in sediment, thereby they may have different effects on solute exchange across the SWI. This laboratory study examined the impacts of different benthic animals on phosphorus dynamics across the SWI. Tubificid worms and Chironomidae larvae were introduced as model organisms which, based on their mechanical activities, belong to upward-conveyors and gallery-diffusers, respectively. The microcosm simulation study was carried out with a continuous flow culture system, and all sediment, water, and worms and larvae specimens were sampled from Taihu Lake, China. To compare their bioturbation effects, the same biomass (17.1 g wet weight (ww)/m2) was adopted for worms and larvae.Worms altered no oxygen penetration depth in sediment, while larvae increased the O2 penetration depth, compared to the control treatment. Their emergence also enhanced sediment O2 uptake. The oxidation of ferrous iron in pore water produced ferric iron oxyhydroxides that adsorbed soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the overlying water and pore water. Larvae built obviously oxidized tubes with about 2 mm diameter and the maximum length of 6 cm in sediment, and significantly decreased ferrous iron and SRP in the pore water compared to the control and worms treatments. Worms constructed no visually-oxidized galleries in the sediment in contrast to larvae, and they did not significantly alter SRP in the pore water relative to the control treatment. The adsorption of ferric iron oxyhydroxides to SRP caused by worms and larvae inhibited SRP release from sediment. Comparatively, worms inhibited more SRP release than larvae based on the same biomass, as they successively renewed the ferric iron oxyhydroxides rich oxidation layer through their deposition.  相似文献
2.
Organic matter-induced black blooms(hypoxia and an offensive odor) are a serious ecosystem disasters that have occurred in some large eutrophic shallow lakes in China. In this study, we investigated two separate black blooms that were induced by Potamogeton crispus in Lake Taihu, China. The main physical and chemical characteristics, including color- and odor-related substances, of the black blooms were analyzed. The black blooms were characterized by low dissolved oxygen concentration(close to 0 mg/L), low oxidation-reduction potential, and relatively low pH of overlying water. Notably higher Fe2+and∑S2-were found in the black-bloom waters than in waters not affected by black blooms. The black color of the water may be attributable to the high concentration of these elements, as black FeS was considered to be the main substance causing the black color of blooms in freshwater lakes. Volatile organic sulfur compounds, including dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide, were very abundant in the black-bloom waters. The massive anoxic degradation of dead Potamogeton crispus plants released dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide, which were the main odor-causing compounds in the black blooms. The black blooms also induced an increase in ammonium nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus levels in the overlying waters. This extreme phenomenon not only heavily influenced the original lake ecosystem but also greatly changed the cycling of Fe, S, and nutrients in the water column.  相似文献
3.
Algae-caused black bloom (also known as black water agglomerate) has recently become a critical problem in some Chinese lakes.It has been suggested that the occurrence of algae-caused black bloom was caused by the cooperation of nutrient-rich sediment with dead algae,and sludge dredging was adopted to control black bloom in some lakes of China.In this article,based on the simulation of black bloom using a Y-shape apparatus for modeling natural conditions,both un-dredged and dredged sites in three areas of Taihu Lake,China were studied to estimate the effects of dredging on the prevention and control of black bloom.During the experiment,drained algae were added to all six sites as an additional organic load;subsequently,the dissolved oxygen decreased rapidly,dropping to 0 mg/L at the sediment-water interface.Black bloom did not occur in the dredged sites of Moon Bay and Nan Quan,whereas all three un-dredged sites at Fudu Port,Moon Bay and Nan Quan experienced black bloom.Black bloom also occurred at the dredged site of Fudu Port one day later than at the other sites,and the odor and color were lighter than at the other locations.The color and odor of the black water mainly result from the presence of sulfides such as metal sulfides and hydrogen sulfide,among other chemicals,under reductive conditions.The color and odor of the water,together with the high concentrations of nutrients,were mainly caused by the decomposition of the algae and the presence of nutrient-rich sediment.Overall,the removal of the nutrient-rich sediment by dredging can prevent the occurrence and control the degree of algae-caused black bloom in Taihu Lake.  相似文献
4.
Surface sediments are closely related to lake black blooms. The dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution and its penetration depth in surface sediments as well as the migration and transformation of redox sensitive elements such as Fe and S at the sediment-water interface are important factors that could influence the formation of the black bloom. In this study, dredged and undredged sediment cores with different surface properties were used to simulate black blooms in the laboratory. The Micro Profiling System was employed to explore features of the DO and ∑H2S distribution at the sediment-water interface. Physical and chemical characteristics in sediments and pore waters were also analyzed. The results showed that sediment dredging effectively suppressed the black blooms. In the undredged treatment, DO penetration depth was only 50 μm. Fe^2+ concentrations, ∑H2S concentrations, and ∑H2S production rates were remarkably higher in surface sediments and pore waters compared to control and dredged treatments. Furthermore, depletion of DO and accumulation of Fe^2+ and ∑H2S in surface sediments and pore waters provided favorable redox environments and necessary material sources for the blooms. The study results proved that physical and chemical characteristics in surface sediments are important factors in the formation of the black bloom, and could provide scientific guidance for emergency treatment and long-term pre-control of black blooms.  相似文献
5.
The regulatory effects of environmental factors on denitrification were studied in the sediments of Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, in a monthly sampling campaign over a one-year period. Denitrification rates were measured in slurries of field samples and enrichment experiments using the acetylene inhibition technique. Sediment denitrification rates in inner bay and outer bay ranged from 2.8 to 51.5 nmol N2/(g dw (dry weight)·hr) and from 1.5 to 81.1 nmol N2/(g dw·hr), respectively. Sediment denitrification rates...  相似文献
6.
The microscale distribution of oxygen,the nitrogen flux and the denitrification rates in sediment inhabited by chironomid larvae(Tanypus chinensis) were measured in eutrophic Lake Taihu,China.The presence of the chironomids in the sediment increased the oxygen diffusional flux from 10.4 ± 1.4 to 12.7 ± 2.5 mmol O 2 /(m 2 ·day).The burrows of the larvae represented "hot spots" and strongly influenced the nitrogen cycles and diagenetic activity in the sediment.The results indicate that the bioturbation effects of Tanypus chinensis chironomid larvae increased the capacity of the sediment as a sink for nitrate and a source for ammonium.Nitrate influx and ammonium outflux were increased 8.8 and 1.7 times,respectively.Under bioturbation,the amount of nitrate consumed was greater than the amount of ammonium released.The total denitrification rate was also enhanced from 0.76 ± 0.34 to 5.50 ± 1.30 mmol N/(m 2 ·day).The net effect was that the bioturbated sediments acted as a net sink for inorganic nitrogen under direct and indirect bioturbation effects compared to the control.  相似文献
7.
In page 2357 of the published paper(Shen Q S, et al. Effects of physical and chemical characteristics of surface sediments in the formation of shallow lake algae-induced black bloom. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2013, 25(12): 2353-2360), the units of the Fe2+ and Oxal-Fe2+ in Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 5 should be "mg/g" rather than "mg/kg".  相似文献
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