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1.
Research on micropore mufflers was started in the middle of the 1970s. In this article we have summarized and systematized what has been done in the past 20 years. Some expressions, derivations, and calculation curves have been formally modified to make them easier to understand and apply. Some new considerations have been added. The main purpose of this article is to introduce the fundamentals, theories, and calculations that are useful for the design of a micropore muffler. Therefore, we have not included any experiments. Direct and indirect experimental proofs can be found in the given relevant references. Micropore mufflers are grouped into two classes, simple micropore mufflers and expansion micropore mufflers. The latter have additional noise reduction due to flow expansion. Noise reduction and flow are two important aspects that have been discussed in detail.  相似文献   
2.
Street sweeping is often proposed as a means of reducing the emissions from paved roads. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of street sweeping on ambient particulate matter concentrations and to determine the difference In source contributions to PM10 concentrations between street sweeping and non-street sweeping periods.

Chemically-speciated measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 were taken in the commercial section of Reno, Nevada, for a one-month sampling period. The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model was applied to these data and an average of approximately 50 percent of the PM10 was apportioned to resuspended geological material. During half of the sampling period, streets In the vicinity of the sampling site were completely swept with a regenerative-air vacuum sweeper, while no sweeping was performed during the remainder of the experiment. Ratios of primary geological contributions divided by primary motor vehicle contributions to PM10 were compared between sweeping and non-sweeping periods using analysis of variance. This ratio of source contributions minimizes the effects of variations in traffic volume and meteorological dispersion. No significant differences in geological contributions to PM10 were detected as a result of regenerative-air vacuum street sweeping.  相似文献   
3.
Comparisons are made, for the first time, between the combustion characteristics of dichloromethane and xylene in an industrial rotary kiln incinerator. The comparisons are made under different operating conditions, including variable kiln rotation rate and operation both with and without turbulence air. Continuous gas composition and temperature measurements and batch gas composition measurements were obtained from two vertical locations hear the exit region of the rotary kiln. The measurements show that there is significant vertical stratification at the exit of the kiln. Addition of turbulence air enhanced combustion conditions throughout the kiln during xylene processing. During dichloromethane processing, however, the addition of turbulence air had minimal effect and only promoted greater bulk mixing; chlorinated compounds transported from the lower kiln during operation with turbulence air were not efficiently processed in the upper kiln. Evolution of test liquids from the bed was not constant but rather was characterized by intermittent peaks. The field-scale data of this work suggest that the evolution rate of the test liquid was increased as kiln rotation rate increased. Many of the differences between xylene and dichloromethane processing during these experiments are explained by a simple stoichiometric analysis.  相似文献   
4.
Fingerprinting of hydrocarbon products requires high resolution differentiation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in any mixture. This requires the applications of various measuring techniques. In this paper, we have chosen the heavy hydrocarbons in fuels, lubricants and paving material as examples to discuss the methods for chemical characterization and differentiation. In the category most frequently termed "semi-volatile hydrocarbons" with boiling points from about 500°F to 1200°F or higher, there are several families of hydrocarbons, both natural and refined that are not easily distinguished by conventional EPA tests. Among the groups which we will use as examples are asphalts, hydraulic fluid, transmission oil, motor lubricating oils, heating oils, crude oil and coal. These hydrocarbon families are best studied using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode and characterizing various homologous series of hydrocarbons at known fragment ions. The hydrocarbon series providing the best information are: (1) N -alkanes; (2) iso-alkanes; (3) steranes; (4) terpanes; (5) polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons; (6) aromatic steranes; and (7) specific polycyclic compounds.  相似文献   
5.
针对目前许多废钻井液固化剂产品达不到降低污染物浓度的要求,而效果较好的产品价格昂贵,处理成本高,难以推广使用的问题,选取了9种固化剂进行固化实验,通过针入度测定仪、固化效果比对,参考相应市场价格,筛选出经济效益较高的固化剂,为同行业开展固化处理提供参考和借鉴。  相似文献   
6.
基于SNA的环鄱阳湖城市群网络结构的经济联系分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
借鉴社会网络分析方法和城市引力模型,从网络的基本形态、结构属性和网络特征3个维度对环鄱阳湖区城市群整体和分区的经济联系进行研究。研究表明:(1)从网络中心性角度看,整体网络中的中介程度不高,城市之间资源交换的程度不高,而各个圈层网络表现为南昌市的中心度很高,在城市群经济发展中起重要作用。(2)从小团体分析的角度看,整体网络被划分为两个联系紧密的团体,而核心区网络则出现了结构洞。(3)从角色分析角度看,整体网络角色可大致分为经济领导、辐射输出、接受辐射以及普通角色,而整体网络优势尚未发挥。由此,依据网络分析结果进一步提出实现环鄱阳湖城市群网络化优化发展的政策建议  相似文献   
7.
Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.  相似文献   
8.
9.
The preparation of highly active supported noble metal catalysts with a low noble metal loading has always been the ultimate goal of researchers working on catalysis. Hydrothermally treated Pt/Al2O3 (Pt/Al2O3-H) exhibits better catalytic activity than that (Pt/Al2O3-C) treated via the conventional calcination approach. At the high space velocity of 100,000 mL/(g∙hr), the temperature that correspond to 50% toluene conversion (T50) of Pt/Al2O3-H is 115°C lower than that of Pt/Al2O3-C, and the turnover frequency (TOF) value can reach 0.0756 sec−1. The mechanism by which the hydrothermal approach enhances Pt/Al2O3 activity has been investigated. The structure associated with the high catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) can be retained via hydrothermal treatment. Furthermore, the support is transformed to AlO(OH) with numerous surface hydroxyl groups, which in turn can facilitate the adsorption of toluene. And the synergistic effects of Pt NPs and AlO(OH) increases the contents of Pt in oxidation state and active oxygen, which are beneficial for toluene oxidation.  相似文献   
10.
Respirogram technology has been widely applied for aerobic process, however, the response of respirogram to anoxic denitrification is still unclear. To reveal such response may help to design a new method for the evaluation of the performance of denitrification. The size distribution of flocs measured at different denitrification moments demonstrated a clear expansion of flocs triggered by denitrification, during which higher specific endogenous and quasi-endogenous respiration rates (SOURe and SOURq) were also observed. Furthermore, SOURq increases exponentially with the specific denitrification rate (SDNR), suggesting that there should be a maximum SDNR in conventional activated sludge systems. Based on these findings, an index Rq/t, defined as the ratio of quasi-endogenous (OURq) to maximum respiration rate (OURt), is proposed to estimate the denitrification capacity that higher Rq/t indicates higher denitrification potential, which can be readily obtained without complex measurement or analysis, and it offers a novel and promising respirogram-based approach for denitrification estimation and control by taking measures to extend anoxic time to maintain its value at a high level within a certain range.  相似文献   
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