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The degradation of atrazine (ATZ), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and metoprolol (MET) in flow-through VUV/UV/H2O2 reactors was investigated with a focus on the effects of H2O2 dosage and reactor internal diameter (ID). Results showed that the micropollutants were degraded efficiently in the flow-through VUV/UV/H2O2 reactors following the pseudo first-order kinetics (R2 > 0.92). However, the steady-state assumption (SSA) kinetic model being vital in batch reactors was found invalid in flow-through reactors where fluid mixing was less sufficient. With the increase of H2O2 dosage, the ATZ removal efficiency remained almost constant while the SMX and MET removal was enhanced to different extents, which could be explained by the different reactivities of the pollutants towards HO. A larger reactor ID resulted in lower degradation rate constants for all the three pollutants on account of the lower average fluence rate, but the change in energy efficiency was much more complicated. In reality, the electrical energy per order (EEO) of the investigated VUV/UV/H2O2 treatments ranged between 0.14–0.20, 0.07–0.14 and 0.09–0.26 kWh/m3/order for ATZ, SMX and MET, respectively, with the lowest EEO for each pollutant obtained under varied H2O2 dosages and reactor IDs. This study has demonstrated the efficiency of VUV/UV/H2O2 process for micropollutant removal and the inadequacy of the SSA model in flow-through reactors, and elaborated the influential mechanisms of H2O2 dosage and reactor ID on the reactor performances.  相似文献
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Fluence rate (FR) distribution (optical field) is of great significance in the optimal design of ultraviolet (UV) reactors for disinfection or oxidation processes in water treatment. Since the 1970s, various simulation models have been developed, which can be combined with computational fluidic dynamic software to calculate the fluence delivered in a UV reactor. These models strive for experimental validation and further improvement, which is a major challenge for UV technology in water treatment. Herein, a review of the simulation models of the FR distribution in a UV reactor and the applications of the current main experimental measurement approaches including conventional flat-type UV detector, spherical actinometer, and micro-fluorescent silica detector (MFSD), is presented. Moreover, FR distributions in a UV reactor are compared between various simulation models and MFSD measurements. In addition, the main influential factors on the FR distribution, including inner-wall reflection, refraction and shadowing effects of adjacent lamps, and turbidity effect are discussed, which is helpful for improving the accuracy of the simulation models and avoiding dark regions in the reactor design. This paper provides an overview on the simulation models and measurement approaches for the FR distribution, which is helpful for the model selection in fluence calculations and gives high confidence on the optimal design of UV reactors in regard to present methods.  相似文献
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