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As a diagenetic progress, bioturbation influences solute exchange across the sediment-water interface (SWI). Different benthic animals have various mechanical activities in sediment, thereby they may have different effects on solute exchange across the SWI. This laboratory study examined the impacts of different benthic animals on phosphorus dynamics across the SWI. Tubificid worms and Chironomidae larvae were introduced as model organisms which, based on their mechanical activities, belong to upward-conveyors and gallery-diffusers, respectively. The microcosm simulation study was carried out with a continuous flow culture system, and all sediment, water, and worms and larvae specimens were sampled from Taihu Lake, China. To compare their bioturbation effects, the same biomass (17.1 g wet weight (ww)/m2) was adopted for worms and larvae.Worms altered no oxygen penetration depth in sediment, while larvae increased the O2 penetration depth, compared to the control treatment. Their emergence also enhanced sediment O2 uptake. The oxidation of ferrous iron in pore water produced ferric iron oxyhydroxides that adsorbed soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the overlying water and pore water. Larvae built obviously oxidized tubes with about 2 mm diameter and the maximum length of 6 cm in sediment, and significantly decreased ferrous iron and SRP in the pore water compared to the control and worms treatments. Worms constructed no visually-oxidized galleries in the sediment in contrast to larvae, and they did not significantly alter SRP in the pore water relative to the control treatment. The adsorption of ferric iron oxyhydroxides to SRP caused by worms and larvae inhibited SRP release from sediment. Comparatively, worms inhibited more SRP release than larvae based on the same biomass, as they successively renewed the ferric iron oxyhydroxides rich oxidation layer through their deposition.  相似文献
2.
Organic matter-induced black blooms(hypoxia and an offensive odor) are a serious ecosystem disasters that have occurred in some large eutrophic shallow lakes in China. In this study, we investigated two separate black blooms that were induced by Potamogeton crispus in Lake Taihu, China. The main physical and chemical characteristics, including color- and odor-related substances, of the black blooms were analyzed. The black blooms were characterized by low dissolved oxygen concentration(close to 0 mg/L), low oxidation-reduction potential, and relatively low pH of overlying water. Notably higher Fe2+and∑S2-were found in the black-bloom waters than in waters not affected by black blooms. The black color of the water may be attributable to the high concentration of these elements, as black FeS was considered to be the main substance causing the black color of blooms in freshwater lakes. Volatile organic sulfur compounds, including dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide, were very abundant in the black-bloom waters. The massive anoxic degradation of dead Potamogeton crispus plants released dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide, which were the main odor-causing compounds in the black blooms. The black blooms also induced an increase in ammonium nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus levels in the overlying waters. This extreme phenomenon not only heavily influenced the original lake ecosystem but also greatly changed the cycling of Fe, S, and nutrients in the water column.  相似文献
3.
Surface sediments are closely related to lake black blooms. The dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution and its penetration depth in surface sediments as well as the migration and transformation of redox sensitive elements such as Fe and S at the sediment-water interface are important factors that could influence the formation of the black bloom. In this study, dredged and undredged sediment cores with different surface properties were used to simulate black blooms in the laboratory. The Micro Profiling System was employed to explore features of the DO and ∑H2S distribution at the sediment-water interface. Physical and chemical characteristics in sediments and pore waters were also analyzed. The results showed that sediment dredging effectively suppressed the black blooms. In the undredged treatment, DO penetration depth was only 50 μm. Fe^2+ concentrations, ∑H2S concentrations, and ∑H2S production rates were remarkably higher in surface sediments and pore waters compared to control and dredged treatments. Furthermore, depletion of DO and accumulation of Fe^2+ and ∑H2S in surface sediments and pore waters provided favorable redox environments and necessary material sources for the blooms. The study results proved that physical and chemical characteristics in surface sediments are important factors in the formation of the black bloom, and could provide scientific guidance for emergency treatment and long-term pre-control of black blooms.  相似文献
4.
In page 2357 of the published paper(Shen Q S, et al. Effects of physical and chemical characteristics of surface sediments in the formation of shallow lake algae-induced black bloom. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2013, 25(12): 2353-2360), the units of the Fe2+ and Oxal-Fe2+ in Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 5 should be "mg/g" rather than "mg/kg".  相似文献
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