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Central Plains region of China,represented by Henan Province,is facing serious air pollution problems.Vehicular exhaust emissions had adverse impacts on the atmospheric environment.The first comprehensive and novel vehicle emission inventory for Henan Province using vehicle kilometers traveled,localized emission factors,and activity data at city-level was developed.Furthermore,3 km×3 km gridded emission and temporal variations were determined by using localized information.Results show that the total emissions of sulfur dioxide(SO_2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),carbon monoxide(CO),particular matter with aerodynamic diameter10μm(PM_(10)),aerodynamic diameter2.5μm(PM_(2.5)),volatile organic compounds(VOCs),VOCs-evaporation and ammonia in 2015 were 9.1,533.4,1190.7,23.7,21.6,150.8,31.5 and 10.4 Gg,respectively,and the emission intensities of the above pollutants were 0.05,2.7,6.0,0.1,0.1,0.8,0.2 and 0.05 g/km,respectively.Vehicles meeting the Primary China 1,China 3 and China 4 contributed 89.1%,82.7%,75.3%,75.5%,75.5%,68.2%,68.4%and 82.3%for SO_2,NO_x,CO,PM_(10),PM_(2.5),VOCs,VOCs-evaporation and ammonia emissions,respectively.Zhengzhou,Zhoukou,Nanyang,Luoyang,Shangqiu and Xinyang showed relatively higher emissions and contributed more than 50%of each pollutant.The spatial distribution indicated obvious characteristics of the road network,and high-level emission was concentrated in the downtown areas.Additionally,the ozone formation potential(OFP)based on the estimated speciated VOC emissions was 569.6 Gg in Henan Province.Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were the main species of VOCs,whereas olefins contributed the largest proportion of OFP,with 42.2%.  相似文献
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To investigate the characteristics of ground level ozone (O3) for Henan Province, the ambient air quality monitoring data of 2015 and 2016 were analyzed. The result showed that the 8 h-max-O3 concentrations displayed a distinct seasonality, where the maximum and minimum values, averaging 140.41, 54.19 μg/m3, occurred in summer and winter, respectively. There is a significant correlation between meteorological factors and O3 concentration. The Voronoi neighborhood averaging analysis indicated that O3, temperature, and ultraviolet radiation in Henan province were decreased from northwest to southeast, while relative humidity and precipitation displayed the opposite trend. Besides meteorological factors, the chemical processes play an essential role in ozone formation. Reactions of NO, NO2 and O3 form a closed system, and the partitioning point of the OX-component (O3 + NO2) was at 40 and 80 μg/m3 for nitrogen oxide (NOX) in winter and summer, respectively, with NO2 dominating at higher NOx pollution and O3 being the major component at lower levels. The relationship between oxidant (OX = O3+NO2) and NOx concentrations were evaluated to understand the regional and local contribution of OX. It showed that high regional contribution occurred in the spring, whereas the highest local contribution lead to the summer peak of O3 observed in Zhengzhou. This present study reveals important environment impacts from the photochemical process and the meteorological conditions in the region with better understanding on the O3 characterization.  相似文献
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