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1.
SBR处理城市生活污水的试验研究   总被引:12,自引:3,他引:9  
通过序批式活性污泥法 ( SBR)工艺处理城市生活污水的试验 ,研究了不同操作方式对处理效果的影响并得出最佳运行参数。当采用最佳操作方式运行时 ,COD、TP、TN的去除率分别为 90 % ,90 % ,75 %以上 ,出水能达到国家一级排放标准。  相似文献
2.
水产养殖与有毒有害污染物残留及其环境影响   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
文章介绍传统养殖模式虽然有着良好的环境效益,但养殖产量比较低下,不能满足市场需求;现有水产养殖模式养殖结构简单,过度依赖化学农用品的调控,饲料添加剂、生长促进剂、杀虫剂、抗生素等各种化学品的频繁而广泛使用,极大地阻碍了水产养殖业的可持续发展,要降低水产养殖对环境的负面影响,减少水产品中有毒有害物质的污染,必须调整现有的养殖模式,吸收传统水产养殖业中多元化、多层次特点和现代养殖模式中的集约化、规模化特点,摈弃高消耗、高污染的发展模式,合理使用农用化学品,控制养殖水体的污染,发展绿色水产品生产,走可持续发展的道路,这是未来水产养殖业发展的必然方向。  相似文献
3.
塑料玩具中邻苯二甲酸酯类环境激素检测方法研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
文章建立了一种对塑料玩具中5种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质同时分离和检测的高效液相色谱分析法。以shim-pack VP-ODS(4.6mm×150mm,5μm)为分离柱;以甲醇-水(体积比:90:10)为流动相,流速:1.0mL/min,检测波长:230nm。该方法所测得的5种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质在0.5~1000mg/L内具有良好的线性,相关系数r=0.9996,检出限达0.34~0.96μg/L,平均回收率在93.00%~105.23%。在对样品提取和纯化的基础上,对塑料玩具中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质进行了分析,结果令人满意。  相似文献
4.
基于洋河流域土地利用方式、海拔高度、土壤、植被类型等采集流域上下游171个代表性表层土壤(0~10 cm),系统地分析了土壤总硒(Se)含量、分布及影响因素. 结果表明,洋河流域土壤总Se含量(以干重(dw)计,下同)在0.02~3.24 mg·kg-1之间,几何平均值为0.30 mg·kg-1,高于北京平原(0.20 mg·kg-1)、河北平原(0.19 mg·kg-1)和全国平均值(0.29 mg·kg-1). 洋河流域少Se(0.13~0.18 mg·kg-1)土壤主要分布在怀安县、宣化县以及怀来县, 多数地区土壤处于足Se水平(0.18~0.45 mg·kg-1),除此之外,在万全县、兴和县、天镇县及阳高县分布有富Se(0.45~2.0 mg·kg-1)土壤. 不同土地利用类型中Se含量有所差异,Se平均含量由高到低分别为: 林地>城镇工矿用地>草地>农业用地,其中农业用地平均含量为0.28 mg·kg-1. 成土母质、土壤类型对洋河流域Se含量影响较小. 黏粒含量与洋河流域表层土壤中Se相关性最好. Se含量随海拔增高显著增加,随pH增加显著减小. TOC、Fe和Al含量也是影响土壤Se含量的重要因素.  相似文献
5.
Ultrasonic/O3 combined process was employed to pretreat heterocyclic pesticide wastewater for increasing biodegradability and reducing biological toxicity. Influences of ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic power, probe diameter, initial pH and O3 dosage on the COD removal were studied. The results showed that the ultrasonic/O3 process significantly improved the biodegradability and reduced the biological toxicity of the wastewater. The ratio of BOD5/COD was increased from 0.03 to 0.55 and the EC50 increased from 11% to 52% under ultrasonic/O3 treatment. Low ultrasonic frequency brought better COD removal. Initial pH was found to have a high influence on the COD removal and alkaline conditions were more favorable. The influences of ultrasonic power and probe diameter were small. With an increase in O3 dosage, COD removal was e ectively improved. The optimal operational parameters for the combined process on COD removal were ultrasonic frequency 20 kHz, initial pH 9.00, ultrasonic power 300Wand dosage of O3 454.8 mg/(L min), under which the e ciency of COD removal reached 67.2%.  相似文献
6.
Endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) pollution in river-based artificial groundwater recharge using reclaimed municipal wastewater poses a potential threat to groundwater-based drinking water supplies in Beijing, China. Lab-scale leaching column experiments simulating recharge were conducted to study the adsorption, biodegradation, and transport characteristics of three selected EDCs: 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA). The three recharge columns were operated under the conditions of continual sterilization recharge (CSR), continual recharge (CR), and wetting and drying alternative recharge (WDAR). The results showed that the attenuation effect of the EDCs was in the order ofWDAR >CR >CSR systemand E2 >EE2 >BPA,which followed first-order kinetics. The EDC attenuation rate constants were 0.0783, 0.0505, and 0.0479 m-1 for E2, EE2 and BPA in the CR system, respectively. The removal rates of E2, EE2, and BPA in the CR system were 98%, 96% and 92%,which mainly depended on biodegradation and were affected bywater temperature. In the CR system, the concentrations of BPA, EE2, and E2 in soil were 4, 6 and 10 times higher than in the WDAR system, respectively. According to the DGGE fingerprints, the bacterial community in the bottomlayerwasmore diverse than in the upper layer,which was related to the EDC concentrations in the water-soil system. The dominant group was found to be proteobacteria, including Betaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, suggesting that these microbes might play an important role in EDC degradation.  相似文献
7.
Wastewater treatment systems are important anthropogenic sources of CH4emission. A full-scale experiment was carried out to monitor the CH4 emission from anoxic/anaerobic/oxic process(A2O) and sequencing batch reactor(SBR) wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs) for one year from May 2011 to April 2012. The main emission unit of the A2O process was an oxic tank, accounting for 76.2% of CH4emissions; the main emission unit of the SBR process was the feeding and aeration phase, accounting for 99.5% of CH4emissions. CH4can be produced in the anaerobic condition, such as in the primary settling tank and anaerobic tank of the A2O process. While CH4can be consumed in anoxic denitrification or the aeration condition, such as in the anoxic tank and oxic tank of the A2O process and the feeding and aeration phase of the SBR process. The CH4emission flux and the dissolved CH4concentration rapidly decreased in the oxic tank of the A2O process. These metrics increased during the first half of the phase and then decreased during the latter half of the phase in the feeding and aeration phase of the SBR process. The CH4oxidation rate ranged from 32.47% to 89.52%(mean: 67.96%) in the A2O process and from 12.65% to 88.31%(mean: 47.62%) in the SBR process. The mean CH4 emission factors were 0.182 g/ton of wastewater and 24.75 g CH4 /(person·year) for the A2O process, and 0.457 g/ton of wastewater and 36.55 g CH4 /(person·year) for the SBR process.  相似文献
8.
The levels of roadside PM10 in Beijing, China, were investigated in 2011 and 2012 on a seasonal basis to estimate the population exposure to particulates for three road types. The measurements of PM10 were also conducted in the southern Chinese megacity of Guangzhou for comparison purposes. The results showed that roadside PMlo in Beijing correlated strongly with the PM10 background in the urban atmosphere. The levels of PM10 in street canyons were markedly higher than those along the open roads and in crossroad areas because of limited ventilation. An elevation of PM10 was observed in April, which was possibly due to the sand storms that frequently occur in the spring. Based on these observations, roadside PM10 in Beijing could have multiple origins and was to some extent dispersion- governed. In Guangzhou, the roadside PM10 did not closely relate to the background values. The PM10 pollution was greatly affected by local traffic conditions. The simulation of PM10 for different road types was completed during the study period using the Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model (MOBILE6.2) as an emission model and the California Line Source Dispersion Model (CALINE4) and Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) as dispersion models. The MOBILE6.2/CALINE4 software package was demonstrated to be sufficient for the simulation of PM10 in the open roads and crossroad areas in both Beijing and Guangzhou, and the simulation results of roadside PM10 in the street canyons by the MOBILE6.2/OSPM package were in close agreement with those of the measurements.  相似文献
9.
为考察多氯萘(PCNs)通过大气沉降作用对东江流域的影响,利用通用型大气沉降采样器,在东江流域广东省境内代表性地段布设11个采样点,于2010年冬季(1、2月)和夏季(7、8月)分别采集和分析了沉降样品中PCNs的通量及组成.结果表明,东江流域总PCNs日均沉降通量为828 pg.(m2.d)-1,对应毒性当量(TEQ)为0.14 pg.(m2.d)-1,由此估算东江流域广东境内PCNs年沉降总量为8.5 kg,相应TEQ年沉降总量为1.3 g.地域上,广州和东莞地区沉降通量明显高于惠州,同时城镇采样点的沉降通量显著高于农村;季节上,各采样点总体呈现夏季高于冬季的特点;组成上,三氯萘(tri-CNs)是主要的污染物,占总量的50%以上,但广州、东莞的5~8氯萘含量比惠州高.来源分析表明,东江流域PCNs的大气沉降可能受燃烧源与非燃烧源的共同影响;东莞大气沉降中PCNs多来自燃烧源,广州点大气沉降的PCNs以非燃烧源为主.  相似文献
10.
李祥  陈宗姮  黄勇  袁怡  刘忻  张大林 《环境科学》2015,36(11):4189-4194
利用已经启动并达到稳定运行的部分亚硝化-厌氧氨氧化联合工艺,研究了HCO3-对部分亚硝化-厌氧氨氧化联合工艺脱氮效能的影响. 结果表明,当C/N比由2降低到0.17时,因HCO3-投加量的限制,亚硝化区和厌氧氨氧化区pH值大幅下降,从而导致各区域氮素转化效能受限. 联合工艺的氮去除速率由1.3 kg ·(m3 ·d)-1下降到0.40kg ·(m3 ·d)-1,下降幅度达到69.3%. 在联合脱氮工艺运行过程中,降低HCO3-对亚硝化菌、 厌氧氨氧化菌和硝化细菌活性的影响依次下降. 当C/N比恢复到1时,联合工艺的脱氮效能很快恢复到1 kg ·(m3 ·d)-1,说明短期内HCO3-限制对联合工艺氮素转化效能的影响能够快速恢复. 通过拟合后发现,进水C/N比值与联合工艺脱氮效能存在明显的相关性.  相似文献
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