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Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been a major environmental issue, attracting much scientific concern because of their nature of toxicity, persistence, and endocrine disrupting effects. Soil samples were collected from ten college school yards in Beijing in 2006 and analyzed to determine fifteen OCPs. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were found to be the main pollutants, accounting for 93.70% of total OCPs, followed by hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) (2.25%) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.82%). Content...  相似文献
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Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most abundant and toxic microcystin congener and has been classified as a potential human carcinogen (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the genotoxic effects of MC-LR during chronic exposure are still poorly understood. In the present study, human–hamster hybrid (AL) cells were exposed to MC-LR for varying lengths of time to investigate the role of nitrogen radicals in MC-LR-induced genotoxicity. The mutagenic potential at the CD59 locus was more than 2-fold higher (p < 0.01) in AL cells exposed to a cytotoxic concentration (1 μmol/L) of MC-LR for 30 days than in untreated control cells, which was consistent with the formation of micronucleus. MC-LR caused a dose-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) production in treated cells. Moreover, this was blocked by concurrent treatment with the NO synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), which suppressed MC-LR-induced mutations as well. The survival of mitochondrial DNA-depleted (ρ0) AL cells was markedly decreased by MC-LR treatment compared to that in AL cells, while the CD59 mutant fraction was unaltered. These results provided clear evidence that the genotoxicity associated with chronic MC-LR exposure in mammalian cells was mediated by NO and might be considered as a basis for the development of therapeutics that prevent carcinogenesis.  相似文献
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感潮河段水体的物质输运规律及其时空分布不仅受径流、潮汐动力的双重影响,还受水闸调度等人类活动的影响.针对水闸调度影响下感潮河段复杂的水动力学及其伴随的物质输运过程,提出一种新的算盘式网格结构,建立了水动力学和物质输送的三维数学模型,考察了在径流、潮汐及水闸调度综合作用下,感潮河段水流密度分层的特点,并对水体中溶解氧和盐度的时空分布规律及其影响因素进行研究.结果发现,数值模拟计算结果与观测值吻合良好,表明所建立的三维数值模型可以很好地预测感潮河段的水流运动和物质输运规律.研究表明,感潮河段的缺氧水体首先出现在盐水楔的前端,在盐-淡水分层强度、盐水停留时间及水闸调度的综合作用下,出现溶解氧浓度持续降低的趋势,并导致缺氧水体范围从河口上游向下游扩展,随水闸的放流缺氧水体被冲刷的现象.  相似文献
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Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most abundant and toxic microcystin congener and has been classified as a potential human carcinogen (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the genotoxic effects of MC-LR during chronic exposure are still poorly understood. In the present study, human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells were exposed to MC-LR for varying lengths of time to investigate the role of nitrogen radicals in MC-LR-induced genotoxicity. The mutagenic potential at the CD59 locus was more than 2-fold higher (p < 0.01) in AL cells exposed to a cytotoxic concentration (1 μmol/L) of MC-LR for 30 days than in untreated control cells, which was consistent with the formation of micronucleus. MC-LR caused a dose-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) production in treated cells. Moreover, this was blocked by concurrent treatment with the NO synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), which suppressed MC-LRinduced mutations as well. The survival of mitochondrial DNA-depleted (ρ0) AL cells was markedly decreased by MC-LR treatment compared to that in AL cells, while the CD59 mutant fraction was unaltered. These results provided clear evidence that the genotoxicity associated with chronic MC-LR exposure in mammalian cells was mediated by NO and might be considered as a basis for the development of therapeutics that prevent carcinogenesis.  相似文献
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以浙江省各地市排污权有偿使用价格为基础进行研究,介绍了浙江省排污权初始价格计算方法和浙江省各试点地区相关情况,进行了影响排污权有偿使用价格的相关性分析,提出影响排污权有偿使用价格的回归分析,文中运用实证分析,就排污权有偿使用价格与影响其价格的各个因子分别进行了单因素的相关性分析和多因素的线性回归分析,得出回归模型,认为污染治理成本大小对价格有着显著的影响,污染治理法是现阶段理想的初始排污权定价方法.  相似文献
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The Jialu River in China has been seriously polluted by the direct discharge of industrial and domestic wastewater. The predominant contaminants of the Jialu River and its adjacent groundwater were recently investigated. However, the potential genotoxic impact of polluted water on human health remains to be clarified. Here, we used human–hamster hybrid(A_L) cells, which are sensitive for detecting environmental mutagens. We found that the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the groundwater in the Jialu River basin were influenced by the infiltration of the Jialu River. Hydrological periods significantly affected the cytotoxicity, but not the mutagenic potential, of surface and groundwater. Further, the mutagenic potential of groundwater samples located 1 km from the Jialu River(S_(M-2) water samples) was detected earlier than that of groundwater samples located approximately 20 km from the Jialu River(S_N water samples). Because of high cytotoxicity, the mutagenic potential of water samples from the Jialu River(S_(M-1) water samples) was not significantly enhanced compared with that of untreated controls. To further assess the mutagenic dispersion potential, an artificial neural network model was adopted. The results showed that the highest mutagenic potential of groundwater was observed approximately 10 km from the Jialu River. Although further investigation of mutagenic spatial dispersion is required, our data are significant for advancing our understanding of the origin, dispersion,and biological effects of water samples from polluted areas.  相似文献
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