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1.
用自制多孔陶珠载体固定脱色混合菌,在不同pH、温度、增补营养浓度、固定化细胞与废水比率等条件对印染废水的脱色进行了试验.在最适条件下进行填充柱式反应器作扩大处理印染废水,脱色效果良好.  相似文献
2.
Characterization, treatment and releases of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater were evaluated along the treatment processes of a typical secondary treatment municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) (in Hefei City) situated the beside Nanfei River, East China. The findings showed that the average concentrations of the total PBDEs in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 188.578 and 36.884 ng/L respectively. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 209 congener, the predominant PBDE in the STP and Nanfei River, could be related to the discharge of car-industry-derived wastes. For PAHs, the average concentrations in raw wastewater and treated effluent were 5758.8 and 2240.4 ng/L respectively, with naphthalene, benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene being detected at the highest concentrations. PAHs mainly originate from the combustion of biomass/coal and petroleum. The STP reduced about 80% of the PBDEs and 61% of the PAHs, which were eliminated mainly by sedimentation processes. The removal rates of PBDEs/PAHs increased with the increase of their solid-water partitioning coefficients. Accordingly, the STP's effluent, containing some PBDE congeners (e.g., BDE 47, 99 and 209, etc.) and low-molecular-weight PAHs, could be an important contributor of these contaminants' input to Nanfei River. It resulted in a significant increase of PBDE/PAH concentrations and PAH toxicological risk in the river water downstream. About 4.040 kg/yr of PBDEs and 245.324 kg/yr of PAHs could be released into the Nanfei River. The current conventional wastewater treatment processes should be improved to remove the relatively low-molecular-weight PBDEs/PAHs more effectively.  相似文献
3.
2017年7月—2018年5月,在巢湖十五里河干流城乡梯度方向的5个采样点位,按两月一次的频率采集表层沉积物及其上覆水.在此基础上,开展沉积物硝化速率城乡梯度变化规律分析,并识别主要影响因素.结果表明:①十五里河水体氮磷污染严重,并具有氨氮浓度相对较高的污染特点;②潜在硝化速率(PNR)变幅为0.003~0.021μmol·g~(-1)·h~(-1),均值为0.011μmol·g~(-1)·h~(-1),没有表现出明显的城乡梯度规律;③表面硝化速率(ANR)变幅为0.73~15.23μmol·m~(-2)·h~(-1),均值为4.19μmol·m~(-2)·h~(-1),也未表现出明显的城乡梯度规律;④十五里河沉积物硝化速率季节性变化规律明显,基本表现为:夏季春季秋季冬季,但5个采样点之间硝化速率的差异性程度不完全相同;⑤PNR与上覆水水温相关性较为显著,ANR与上覆水中NH~+_4-N和NO~-_3-N存在显著相关性,沉积物中对PNR和ANR影响较为显著的因素都是TN、NH~+_4-N和pH.  相似文献
4.
分析了巢湖流域和太湖流域表层沉积物中苄氯菊酯和高效氰戊菊酯,并结合毒性单元法(Toxic Unit,TU)和物种敏感性分布法(Species Sensitivity Distributions,SSD)评价了两种拟除虫菊酯的生态风险.结果显示,两大流域沉积物中均广泛检测出两类污染物.总体而言,巢湖流域苄氯菊酯含量较高,而太湖流域高效氰戊菊酯含量较高.同时,两种污染物在巢湖流域呈现显著的正相关,但太湖流域二者之间没有相关关系.3种风险评价方法(TU法、沉积物SSD法、水体SSD法)均揭示苄氯菊酯对巢湖流域水生环境影响较大,而高效氰戊菊酯对两个流域影响均较大.因此,需要加强对流域高效氰戊菊酯污染的关注.其中,TU法预测的风险最小,沉积物SSD法预测的风险最大,主要原因在于TU法采用的毒性数据为LC50,而SSD法则选用了NOEC/LOEC,同时沉积物SSD法是出于保护大部分底栖生物为目的的方法.各种方法对于评价沉积物毒害污染物的生态风险均存在不足,尽管沉积物SSD法最为合理,但由于其毒性数据较少,最终预测结果存在一定的不确定性.因此,需要进一步加强对底栖生物毒性的研究和数据积累.  相似文献
5.
Food waste treatment plants (FWTPs) are usually associated with odorous nuisance and health risks, which are partially caused by volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. This study investigated the VOC emissions from a selected full-scale FWTP in China. The feedstock used in this plant was mainly collected from local restaurants. For a year, the FWTP was closely monitored on specific days in each season. Four major indoor treatment units of the plant, including the storage room, sorting/crushing room, hydrothermal hydrolysis unit, and aerobic fermentation unit, were chosen as the monitoring locations. The highest mean concentration of total VOC emissions was observed in the aerobic fermentation unit at 21,748.2–31,283.3 μg/m3, followed by the hydrothermal hydrolysis unit at 10,798.1–23,144.4 μg/m3. The detected VOC families included biogenic compounds (oxygenated compounds, hydrocarbons, terpenes, and organosulfur compounds) and abiogenic compounds (aromatic hydrocarbons and halocarbons). Oxygenated compounds, particularly alcohols, were the most abundant compounds in all samples. With the use of odor index analysis and principal components analysis, the hydrothermal hydrolysis and aerobic fermentation units were clearly distinguished from the pre-treatment units, as characterized by their higher contributions to odorous nuisance. Methanthiol was the dominant odorant in the hydrothermal hydrolysis unit, whereas aldehyde was the dominant odorant in the aerobic fermentation unit. Terpenes, specifically limonene, had the highest level of propylene equivalent concentration during the monitoring periods. This concentration can contribute to the increase in the atmospheric reactivity and ozone formation potential in the surrounding air.  相似文献
6.
以杭州某体育场为例,分析该体育场收集屋面和路面雨水作为体育场绿化、田径场喷灌、跑道浇洒等水源的可行性,结果表明该体育场通过雨水回用达到绿色建筑节水率要求,并提高大型体育场水循环利用率、实现水资源的可持续利用。  相似文献
7.
为在溢油事故发生后立即采取有效的应急管理措施,降低事故危害,利用IWIND-LR模型对我国西部某河流进行了突发性溢油事故模拟,通过设定不同的流量情景,对比分析了各种条件下的油膜迁移规律.结果表明:所建的预测模型能够对泄漏油品在河流中的迁移路径进行快速的模拟和预测;在分析油膜到达各拦截点所用时间的基础上,明确了各拦截点在应急抢险中的作用,并提出应急处理处置中围油栏布设与溢油回收技术.该研究可为河段突发管线溢油事故的应急管理工作提供一定的决策支持.  相似文献
8.
为客观合理地评价油气长输管线穿越河流处的环境风险等级,提出一种基于风险评估矩阵的管道穿越环境敏感点风险评估方法.根据风险矩阵的基本原理,以肯特风险评估方法评估穿越处的管线风险,叠加环境敏感点的自身风险,对管线穿越河流敏感点处进行风险评估与分级.以中国某输油管线为倒,评估管线穿越的6处河流并依据得分结果划分风险等级,对管线穿越河流的风险管理、制定具体的维护维修和整治规划具有很好的指导意义并提供一定的决策支持.  相似文献
9.
Food waste treatment plants(FWTPs) are usually associated with odorous nuisance and health risks, which are partially caused by volatile organic compound(VOC) emissions. This study investigated the VOC emissions from a selected full-scale FWTP in China. The feedstock used in this plant was mainly collected from local restaurants. For a year, the FWTP was closely monitored on specific days in each season. Four major indoor treatment units of the plant, including the storage room, sorting/crushing room, hydrothermal hydrolysis unit, and aerobic fermentation unit, were chosen as the monitoring locations.The highest mean concentration of total VOC emissions was observed in the aerobic fermentation unit at 21,748.2–31,283.3 μg/m3, followed by the hydrothermal hydrolysis unit at 10,798.1–23,144.4 μg/m3. The detected VOC families included biogenic compounds(oxygenated compounds, hydrocarbons, terpenes, and organosulfur compounds) and abiogenic compounds(aromatic hydrocarbons and halocarbons). Oxygenated compounds,particularly alcohols, were the most abundant compounds in all samples. With the use of odor index analysis and principal components analysis, the hydrothermal hydrolysis and aerobic fermentation units were clearly distinguished from the pre-treatment units, as characterized by their higher contributions to odorous nuisance. Methanthiol was the dominant odorant in the hydrothermal hydrolysis unit, whereas aldehyde was the dominant odorant in the aerobic fermentation unit. Terpenes, specifically limonene, had the highest level of propylene equivalent concentration during the monitoring periods. This concentration can contribute to the increase in the atmospheric reactivity and ozone formation potential in the surrounding air.  相似文献
10.
为寻求评价和调控城市河流内分泌干扰风险的有效方法,以城市河流典型代表―南淝河及其支流水系为例,运用MIKE11水动力学和对流扩散模块构建南淝河流域城市河流雌激素迁移转化模型.同时,利用该模型对南淝河水系雌激素类物质引起的内分泌干扰风险进行评价,并基于未来可达水污染控制目标提出风险控制措施.结果表明,在最优雌激素排放率情景下,约50%以上的河段具有潜在内分泌干扰风险;仅在最高排放率情景下,丰、平、枯水期分别有19%、53%和67%河段存在高风险,高风险河段集中在南淝河城区段及其支流二十埠河、板桥河和店埠河.3种削减内分泌干扰风险远近期可达情境方案分析表明:仅依靠单一的点源截污控制方案,即使在最优排放率情景下仍有近50%的河段具有潜在风险水平;通过点源截污和70%的面源排污控制相结合的调控措施,在最优排放率情景下能使所有河段处于无风险水平;在将点源和面源排污完全截留控制的远期目标下,可以基本实现预期情景下90%以上河段处于无内分泌干扰风险水平.  相似文献
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