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Cyanobacterial bloom dynamics in Lake Taihu   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and serves as an important drinking water source for the local populace;however,decades of excessive nutrient loading fueled by anthropogenic activities have resulted in hypertrophic conditions,promoting the annual formation of nuisance phytoplankton blooms (Chen et al.,2003;Duan et al.,2009).In May 2007,unseasonably warm spring temperatures combined with the problematic hypertrophic conditions led to the formation of a massive bloom composed of cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis (Guo,2007;Yang et al.,2008;Qin et al.,2010).  相似文献
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We report that green algae in lakes and rivers can serve as precursors of halobenzoquinone(HBQ) disinfection byproducts(DBPs) produced during chlorination. Chlorination of a common green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, produced 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone(2,6-DCBQ), the most prevalent HBQ DBP in disinfected water. Under varying p H conditions(p H 6.0–9.0), 2,6-DCBQ formation ranged from 0.3 to 2.1 μg/mg C with maximum formation at p H 8.0. To evaluate the contribution of organic components of C. vulgaris to 2,6-DCBQ formation, we separated the organics into two fractions, the protein-rich fraction of intracellular organic matter(IOM) and the polysaccharide-laden fraction of extracellular organic matter(EOM). Chlorination of IOM and EOM produced 1.4 μg/mg C and 0.7 μg/mg C of 2,6-DCBQ, respectively. The IOM generated a two-fold higher 2,6-DCBQ formation potential than the EOM fraction, suggesting that proteins are potent 2,6-DCBQ precursors. This was confirmed by the chlorination of proteins extracted from C. vulgaris: the amount of 2,6-DCBQ produced is linearly correlated with the concentration of total algal protein(R2= 0.98). These results support that proteins are the primary precursors of 2,6-DCBQ in algae, and control of green algal bloom outbreaks in source waters is important for management of HBQ DBPs.  相似文献
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正Swimming is excellent exercise and offers many health benefits.However,the"chlorine smell"in swimming pools may be a turn-off for some people.Although this smell is often thought to be of chlorine,it actually comes from volatile compounds that are produced from unintended reactions between disinfectants(e.g.,chlorine)and organic matter in  相似文献
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Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) represent a ubiquitous source of chemical exposure in disinfected water. While over 700 DBPs have been identified, the drivers of toxicity remain poorly understood. Additionally, ever evolving water treatment practices have led to a continually growing list of DBPs. Advancement of analytical technologies have enabled the identification of new classes of DBPs and the quantification of these chemically diverse sets of DBPs. Here we summarize advances in new workflows for DBP analysis, including sample preparation, chromatographic separation with mass spectrometry (MS) detection, and data processing. To aid in the selection of techniques for future studies, we discuss necessary considerations for each step in the strategy. This review focuses on how each step of a workflow can be optimized to capture diverse classes of DBPs within a single method. Additionally, we highlight new MS-based approaches that can be powerful for identifying novel DBPs of toxicological relevance. We discuss current challenges and provide perspectives on future research directions with respect to studying new DBPs of toxicological relevance. As analytical technologies continue to advance, new strategies will be increasingly used to analyze complex DBPs produced in different treatment processes with the aim to identify potential drivers of toxicity.  相似文献
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正Introduction Natural organic matter(NOM)present in source water has significant impact on water treatment processes and on the quality of drinking water.NOM is a complex mixture of diverse groups of organic compounds,humic and fulvic acids,proteins,peptides,carbohydrates,and heterogeneous materials  相似文献
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A broad range of organic compounds are known to exist in drinking water sources and serve as precursors of disinfection byproducts(DBPs).Epidemiological findings of an association of increased risk of bladder cancer with the consumption of chlorinated water has resulted in health concerns about DBPs.Peptides are thought to be an important category of DBP precursors in water.However,little is known about the actual presence of peptides and their DBPs in drinking water because of their high sample complexity and low concentrations.To address this challenge and identify peptides and non-chlorinated/chlorinated peptide DBPs from large sets of organic compounds in water,we developed a novel high throughput analysis strategy,which integrated multiple solid phase extraction(SPE),high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)separation,and non-target identification using precursor ion exclusion(PIE)high resolution mass spectrometry(MS).After MS analysis,structures of candidate compounds,particularly peptides,were obtained by searching against the Human Metabolome Database(HMDB).Using this strategy,we successfully detected 625 peptides(out of 17,205 putative compounds)and 617 peptides(out of 13,297)respectively in source and finished water samples.The source and finished water samples had 501 peptides and amino acids in common.The remaining 116 peptides and amino acids were unique to the finished water.From a subset of 30 putative compounds for which standards were available,25 were confirmed using HPLC-MS analysis.By analyzing the peptides identified in source and finished water,we successfully confirmed three disinfection reaction pathways that convert peptides into toxic DBPs.  相似文献
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The occurrence of a large number of diverse arsenic species in the environment and in biological systems makes it important to compare their relative toxicity. The toxicity of arsenic species has been examined in various cell lines using different assays, making comparison difficult. We report real-time cell sensing of two human cell lines to examine the cytotoxicity of fourteen arsenic species: arsenite(As~Ⅲ), monomethylarsonous acid(MMA~Ⅲ) originating from the oxide and iodide forms, dimethylarsinous acid(DMA~Ⅲ), dimethylarsinic glutathione(DMAG~Ⅲ), phenylarsine oxide(PAO~Ⅲ), arsenate(AsV), monomethylarsonic acid(MMA~Ⅴ), dimethylarsinic acid(DMA~Ⅴ),monomethyltrithioarsonate(MMTTA~Ⅴ), dimethylmonothioarsinate(DMMTA~Ⅴ),dimethyldithioarsinate(DMDTA~Ⅴ), 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid(Roxarsone, Rox),and 4-aminobenzenearsenic acid(p-arsanilic acid, p-ASA). Cellular responses were measured in real time for 72 hr in human lung(A549) and bladder(T24) cells. IC50 values for the arsenicals were determined continuously over the exposure time, giving rise to IC50 histograms and unique cell response profiles. Arsenic accumulation and speciation were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). On the basis of the 24-hr IC50 values, the relative cytotoxicity of the tested arsenicals was in the following decreasing order: PAO~Ⅲ? MMA~Ⅲ≥ DMA~Ⅲ≥ DMAG~Ⅲ≈ DMMTA~Ⅴ≥ As~Ⅲ? MMTTA~Ⅴ AsV DMDTA~ⅤDMA~Ⅴ MMA~Ⅴ≥ Rox ≥ p-ASA. Stepwise shapes of cell response profiles for DMA~Ⅲ, DMAG~Ⅲ,and DMMTA~Ⅴcoincided with the conversion of these arsenicals to the less toxic pentavalent DMA~Ⅴ. Dynamic monitoring of real-time cellular responses to fourteen arsenicals provided useful information for comparison of their relative cytotoxicity.  相似文献
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Cannabis is increasingly used for both medicinal and recreational purposes with an estimate of over 180 million users annually. Canada has recently legalized cannabis use in October 2018, joining several states in the United States of America (e.g., Colorado, California, and Oregon) and a few other countries. A variety of cannabis products including dry flowers, edibles, and oil products are widely consumed. With high demand for cannabis products worldwide, the quality of cannabis and its related products has become a major concern for consumer safety. Various guidelines have been set by different countries to ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of cannabis products. In general, these guidelines require control of contaminants including pesticides, toxic elements, mycotoxins, and pathogens, as well as residual solvents in regard to cannabis oil. Accordingly, appropriate analytical methods are required to determine these contaminants in cannabis products for quality control. In this review, we focus on the current analytical challenges and method development for detection of pesticides and toxic elements in cannabis to meet various guidelines.  相似文献
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