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Central Plains region of China,represented by Henan Province,is facing serious air pollution problems.Vehicular exhaust emissions had adverse impacts on the atmospheric environment.The first comprehensive and novel vehicle emission inventory for Henan Province using vehicle kilometers traveled,localized emission factors,and activity data at city-level was developed.Furthermore,3 km×3 km gridded emission and temporal variations were determined by using localized information.Results show that the total emissions of sulfur dioxide(SO_2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),carbon monoxide(CO),particular matter with aerodynamic diameter10μm(PM_(10)),aerodynamic diameter2.5μm(PM_(2.5)),volatile organic compounds(VOCs),VOCs-evaporation and ammonia in 2015 were 9.1,533.4,1190.7,23.7,21.6,150.8,31.5 and 10.4 Gg,respectively,and the emission intensities of the above pollutants were 0.05,2.7,6.0,0.1,0.1,0.8,0.2 and 0.05 g/km,respectively.Vehicles meeting the Primary China 1,China 3 and China 4 contributed 89.1%,82.7%,75.3%,75.5%,75.5%,68.2%,68.4%and 82.3%for SO_2,NO_x,CO,PM_(10),PM_(2.5),VOCs,VOCs-evaporation and ammonia emissions,respectively.Zhengzhou,Zhoukou,Nanyang,Luoyang,Shangqiu and Xinyang showed relatively higher emissions and contributed more than 50%of each pollutant.The spatial distribution indicated obvious characteristics of the road network,and high-level emission was concentrated in the downtown areas.Additionally,the ozone formation potential(OFP)based on the estimated speciated VOC emissions was 569.6 Gg in Henan Province.Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were the main species of VOCs,whereas olefins contributed the largest proportion of OFP,with 42.2%.  相似文献
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多溴联苯(PBBs)是一类新型持久性有机污染物,具有高毒性和生物累积性,对人类健康和生态环境具有潜在危害. 为探究PBBs的消减技术和降解机制,利用多元醇介导自组装法制备出了哑铃状形貌的Fe3O4前驱体,将前驱体在氮气氛围下焙烧制得哑铃状Fe3O4微/纳米材料,以十溴联苯(BB209)作为模型化合物进行热催化降解研究. 结果发现,哑铃状Fe3O4前驱体生长过程分为无定型粒子的快速成核和初级粒子间相互团聚结晶两个阶段; 哑铃状Fe3O4对BB209表现出较高的降解活性,在300℃下反应30 min时,Fe3O4对BB209的降解率几乎已达到100%; 在哑铃状Fe3O4降解BB209的产物中检测到一系列的从九溴代联苯到一溴代联苯产物与联苯产物,表明在降解过程中存在加氢脱溴反应路径; 在降解产物中鉴定出3种九溴联苯异构体BB206、 BB207、 BB208,且3种异构体含量的大小顺序为:BB207 > BB208 > BB206,表明不同取代位上Br的活性相对大小为:间位 > 对位 > 邻位.  相似文献
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