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The great spatial and temporal variability in hydrological conditions and nitrogen (N) processing introduces large uncertainties to the identification of N sources and quantifying N cycles in plain river network regions. By combining isotopic data with chemical and hydrologic measurements, we determined the relative importance of N sources and biogeochemical N processes in the Taige River in the East Plain Region of China. The river was polluted more seriously by anthropogenic inputs in winter than in summer. Manure and urban sewage effluent were the main nitrate (NO3-) sources, with the nitrification of N-containing organic materials serving as another important source of NO3-. In the downstream, with minor variations in hydrological conditions, nitrification played a more important role than assimilation for the decreasing ammonium (NH4+-N) concentrations. The N isotopic enrichment factors (ε) during NH4 + utilization ranged from -13.88‰in March to -29.00‰in July. The ratio of the increase in δ18O and δ15N of river NO3- in the downstream was 1.04 in January and 0.92 in March. This ratio indicated that NO3- assimilation by phytoplankton was responsible for the increasing δ15N and δ18O values of NO3- in winter. The relationships between δ15N of particulate organic nitrogen and isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen indicated that the phytoplankton in the Taige River probably utilized NH4+ preferentially and mainly in summer, while in winter, NO3- assimilation by phytoplankton was dominant.  相似文献
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To assess the aquatic ecosystem safety for silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs), the growth inhibition and photosynthetic pigment contents of Scenedesmus obliquus in logarithm growth phase exposed to SiO2 NPs and SiO2 bulk particles (BPs) suspensions were measured. SiO2 NPs with 10-20 nm diameters were found to be toxic. The 20% effective concentration (EC20) values for 72 and 96 hr were 388.1 and 216.5 mg/L, respectively. The contents of chlorophyll decreased significantly under moderate and high concentratio...  相似文献
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在(298±2)K和一个大气压条件下,采用相对速率法研究了一系列酮类物质与氯原子的反应动力学.使用丙醛和乙苯作为参比物,光解三氯乙酰氯作为氯原子产生源,测得2-己酮与氯原子的反应速率常数为(1.80±0.42)×10-10 cm3·molecule-1·s-1,与已有文献报道值非常符合,验证了实验方法和所选参比物的可靠性.首次测得了(298±2)K和一个大气压条件下2-庚酮和2-辛酮与氯原子反应的速率常数,分别为(2.54±0.62)×10-10和(2.12±0.63)×10-10 cm3·molecule-1·s-1.与其母体烷烃的反应速率对比发现,酮类物质中羰基的存在使得其反应速率都比其母体烷烃变慢.利用所测的速率常数和氯原子的浓度信息估算这些酮类物质在大气中的平均寿命,结果显示,在海洋边界层或沿海地区等氯原子浓度较高的地区,这些物质与氯原子反应的大气化学寿命都在小时量级,完全可以与OH自由基的反应相竞争,是这些物质在大气中的重要降解途径.另外,在内陆污染地区或工业聚集区,氯原子的反应及其对二次污染物生成的贡献同样不能忽视.  相似文献
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利用搭建的流动反应系统研究了两种生物源排放的挥发性有机物异戊酸叶醇酯和己酸叶醇酯与O3的反应动力学.实验采用绝对速率法,以保证异戊酸叶醇酯和己酸叶醇酯浓度远远高于臭氧浓度,在准一级实验条件下获得反应的速率常数信息.首先,利用该装置测得了臭氧与异戊二烯和α-蒎烯的反应速率常数,发现其与文献报道值在误差范围内非常吻合,验证了实验装置和实验方法的可靠性.进而实验测定了298 K和1.01×105Pa条件下异戊酸叶醇酯和己酸叶醇酯与O3的气相反应速率常数,分别为(1.78±0.24)×10-16和(1.54±0.18)×10-16cm3·molecule-1·s-1.利用测得的速率常数和大气中臭氧浓度,估算得到两种叶醇酯与臭氧反应的大气寿命约在2 h甚至更短,说明与臭氧的反应是它们在大气中的一种非常重要的消除途径,尤其是在污染严重地区.  相似文献
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通过烟雾箱实验,研究了仲丁醇对苯乙烯臭氧化反应生成二次有机气溶胶(SOA)的影响.结果发现,在烟雾箱实验中,过量仲丁醇的加入导致生成SOA的产率明显下降.同时,结合MCM气相机理和气-粒分配理论,将Criegee中间体与醛类的双分子反应添加到箱式模型中模拟烟雾箱中SOA的生成过程.模拟结果表明,在没有仲丁醇存在的情况下,次级臭氧化物在SOA组分中占1/2左右的比例.仲丁醇的加入消耗了大量的·OH,同时使得[HO_2]/[RO_2]比值升高,影响自由基相关的反应机制,使得SOA产率下降.另外,研究发现,Criegee中间体与醛类反应的速率常数也是影响SOA生成模拟的一个重要参数,需要进一步开展相关的动力学实验和理论研究.  相似文献
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