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危险化学品事故的危害及预防   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
1 危险化学品事故的定义 危险化学品事故,从广义上讲,是指一切由化学物质造成的对人员、财产、环境的伤(危)害事故.但从化学事故处置的角度看,它主要是指与危险化学物品有关的单位在生产、经营活动中,突然发生的、涉及一种或多种危险物质的严重泄漏、火灾、爆炸、中毒等导致人员、财产或环境急性、慢性严重危害的意外事故.  相似文献
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利用灰色模型对西安市大气环境质量进行了综合评价,并在已有研究方法的基础上,对综合关联度进行改进,从而提出了改善城市空气质量的建议。  相似文献
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以白洋淀岸边带沉积物为接种污泥,启动了SBR厌氧氨氧化反应器.对反应器启动过程中的进出水水质进行了连续监测,并采用PCR-DGGE、定量PCR和基因测序等分子生物学技术研究了系统内总细菌和厌氧氨氧化(ANAMMOX)细菌群落结构随培养时间的变化规律.结果表明:在启动过程中,总微生物菌群动态变化水平为26.6%~50.5%;微生物多样性先变小后增大,优势菌种得到重新分布;ANAMMOX细菌的群落结构变得单一化,最后系统的优势ANAMMOX细菌是Brocadia属.富集培养阶段SBR系统中ANAMMOX细菌的最大生物量达到了1.73×109 copies·g-1干污泥,而且总氮的去除率最高达到约82%.  相似文献
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以重庆市生活垃圾为例,通过分选、破碎和干燥预处理后,得到以塑料、纸类、竹木、织物和厨余为主要成分的制备衍生燃料(RDF-5)的原料,测试了不同含水率和成型压力条件下制得的RDF-5的理化性质。结果表明,原料含水率为8%,成型压力为10 MPa时,RDF-5的延展率和耐性指数良好,便于贮存和运输。燃烧试验表明,RDF-5燃烧后灰渣的热灼减率满足《生活垃圾焚烧污染控制标准》(GB 18485-2014)的要求(<5%)。另外,根据2006 IPCC国家温室气体名录导则和生命周期评价(LCA),制备RDF-5对温室气体排放贡献为455.92 g·kg-1 RDF-5(以CO2当量计)。  相似文献
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The hygroscopic behaviors of atmospherically relevant multicomponent water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) and their effects on ammonium sulfate (AS) and sodium chloride were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) in the relative humidity (RH) range of 5%–90%. The measured hygroscopic growth was compared with predictions from the Extended-Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) and Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR) method. The equal mass multicomponent WSOCs mixture containing levoglucosan, succinic acid, phthalic acid and humic acid showed gradual water uptake without obvious phase change over the whole RH range. It was found that the organic content played an important role in the water uptake of mixed particles. When organic content was dominant in the mixture (75%), the measured hygroscopic growth was higher than predictions from the E-AIM or ZSR relation, especially under high RH conditions. For mass fractions of organics not larger than 50%, the hygroscopic growth of mixtures was in good agreement with model predictions. The influence of interactions between inorganic and organic components on the hygroscopicity of mixed particles was related to the salt type and organic content. These results could contribute to understanding of the hygroscopic behaviors of multicomponent aerosol particles.  相似文献
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A sequencing batch reactor(SBR)-anaerobic ammonium oxidation(anammox) system was started up with the paddy soil as inoculated sludge. The key microbial community structure in the system along with the enrichment time was investigated by using molecular biology methods(e.g., high-throughput 16 S r RNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR). Meanwhile,the influent and effluent water quality was continuously monitored during the whole start-up stage. The results showed that the microbial diversity decreased as the operation time initially and increased afterwards, and the microbial niches in the system were redistributed. The anammox bacterial community structure in the SBR-anammox system shifted during the enrichment, the most dominant anammox bacteria were Candidatus Jettenia. The maximum biomass of anammox bacteria achieved 1.68 × 10~9 copies/g dry sludge during the enrichment period, and the highest removal rate of TN achieved around 75%.  相似文献
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