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农田NO排放的自动观测   总被引:8,自引:2,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
详细介绍农田NO排放自动观测的方法原理,系统整体构造及电路和气路配置,并讨论了观测结果的可靠性。同地,还就已取得的一些初步研究结果进行了分析,对华东秋,冬季麦田的NO排放进行自动连续观测的结果表明,秋季麦田的NO排放具有与温度几乎完全同步的日变化规律。  相似文献
2.
开垦利用对三江平原湿地土壤硫含量的影响   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
以三江平原典型类型湿地及不同开垦年限的耕地 (旱田 )为研究对象 ,对其土壤中总硫及各形态硫的含量变化进行分析 ,结果如下 :总硫、水溶性硫、吸附性硫、盐酸可溶性硫、盐酸挥发性硫及有机硫含量排序均为小叶章 (Calamagrostisangusti folia)草甸 <乌拉苔草 (Carexmeyeriana)沼泽 <毛果苔草 (Carexlasiocarpa)沼泽 ;湿地开垦为耕地后 ,除盐酸可溶性硫含量增加以外 ,其余硫组分的含量均有不同程度的降低 ;耕地土壤中总硫及有机硫含量随开垦年限的增加而下降 ,而无机硫各组分随开垦年限的增加变化量不大 .湿地开垦前土壤总硫量为 6 2 2 4mg kg ,湿地开垦 2 0年后 ,土壤总硫量降低为 16 8mg kg ,因此在人类活动的干预下湿地开垦后表现出由汇转化为源 ,由累积转化为分散的特征  相似文献
3.
The distribution and source of the solvent-extractable organic and inorganic components in PM 2.5(aerodynamics equivalent diameter below 2.5 microns),and PM 10(aerodynamics equivalent diameter below 10 microns) fractions of airborne particles were studied weekly from September 2006 to August 2007 in Beijing.The extracted organic and inorganic compounds identified in both particle size ranges consisted of n-alkanes,PAHs(polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons),fatty acids and water soluble ions.The potential emission sources of these organic compounds were reconciled by combining the values of n-alkane carbon preference index(CPI),%waxC n,selected diagnostic ratios of PAHs and principal component analysis in both size ranges.The mean cumulative concentrations of n-alkanes reached 1128.65ng/m3 in Beijing,74% of which(i.e.,831.7ng/m3) was in the PM 2.5 fraction,PAHs reached 136.45ng/m3(113.44ng/m3 or 83% in PM 2.5),and fatty acids reached 436.99ng/m3(324.41ng/m3 or 74% in PM 2.5),which resulted in overall enrichment in the fine particles.The average concentrations of SO42-,NO3-,and NH4+ were 21.3±15.2,6.1±1.8,12.5±6.1μg/m3 in PM 2.5,and 25.8±15.5,8.9±2.6,16.9±9.5μg/m3 in PM 10,respectively.These three secondary ions primarily existed as ammonium sulfate((NH4)2SO4),ammonium bisulfate(NH4HSO4) and ammonium nitrate(NH4NO3).The characteristic ratios of PAHs revealed that the primary sources of PAHs were coal combustion,followed by gasoline combustion.The ratios of stearic/palmitic acid indicated the major contribution of vehicle emissions to fatty acids in airborne particles.The major alkane sources were biogenic sources and fossil fuel combustion.The major sources of PAHs were vehicular emission and coal combustion.  相似文献
4.
Beijing is one of the most polluted cities in the world. In this study, the long-term and continuous measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the urban area of Beijing, specifically at Beijing 325 m Meteorological Tower, were conducted from 2000 to 2007. The annual record of VOC trends exhibited in two different phases was separated in 2003. Records show that VOC concentrations increased from 2000 to 2003 due to the abrupt increase in vehicle number. Contrarily, since 2003, there had been a decrease in VOCs concentrations as the policy on gasoline and air pollution was implemented. Toluene, benzene, and i-pentane are the chemicals that abound in and are directly related to vehicle activity, such as in vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation. Furthermore, records indicate that there had been seasonal variation in VOCs levels in that VOCs level in summer is higher than that in winter. As such, temperature is considered to significantly contribute to VOCs in Beijing. Records also show that VOCs level was high in the morning and during rush hours in the evening. In contrast, VOCs level was low during midday due to photochemical destruction with OH radical and dilution effect. In this study, a particular benzene to toluene ratio range (0.4-1.0) was used as the indicator of air propelled by vehicular exhaust. We also applied the correlation coefficients between BTEX and i-pentane to evaluate evaporation influence to ambient BTEX in the Beijing urban area.  相似文献
5.
The magnitude and partitioning of carbon dioxide emission from the urban area in Beijing, China was estimated based on a statistical approach. Results showed that the urban surface is a net source of CO2 to atmosphere. The main sources of CO2 are vehicles, which accounted for 75.5% and 38.9% of CO2 emission in summer and winter, respectively. At midday in summer, the CO2 uptake of-0.034 mg/(m^2.sec) indicated that vegetation is an important sink of CO2 in summer. Comparison between the annual emission rates of CO2 from the statistical approach and that directly measured by the eddy covariance technique implies that a bottom-up emission approach is a viable means to estimate CO2 emission in an urban area.  相似文献
6.
The present article provides an overview of the chemical and physical features of haze in China, focusing on the relationship between haze and atmospheric fine particles, and the formation mechanism of haze. It also summarizes several of control technologies and strategies to mitigate the occurrence of haze. The development of instruments and the analysis of measurements of ambient particles and precursor concentrations have provided important information about haze formation. Indeed, the use of new instruments has greatly facilitated current haze research in China. Examples of insightful results include the relationship between fine particles and haze, the chemical compositions and sources of particles, the impacts of the aging process on haze formation, and the application of technologies that control the formation of haze. Based on these results, two relevant issues need to be addressed: understanding the relationship between haze and fine particles and understanding how to control PM2.5.  相似文献
7.
Vehicular emissions in China in 2006 and 2010 were calculated at a high spatial resolution based on the data released by the National Bureau of Statistics, by taking the emission standards into consideration. China''s vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), fine particulate matters (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matters (PM10), black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) were 30,113.9, 4593.7, 6838.0, 20.9, 400.2, 430.5, 285.6, and 105.1 Gg, respectively, in 2006 and 34,175.2, 5167.5, 7029.4, 74.0, 386.4, 417.1, 270.9, and 106.2 Gg, respectively, in 2010. CO, VOCs, and NH3 emissions were mainly from motorcycles and light-duty gasoline vehicles, whereas NOX, PM2.5, PM10, and BC emissions were mainly from rural vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. OC emissions were mainly from motorcycles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Vehicles of pre-China I (vehicular emission standard of China before phase I) and China I (vehicular emission standard of China in phase I) were the primary contributors to all of the pollutant emissions except NH3, which was mainly from China III and China IV gasoline vehicles. The total emissions of all the pollutants except NH3 changed little from 2006 to 2010. This finding can be attributed to the implementation of strict emission standards and to improvements in oil quality.  相似文献
8.
In this study, we performed a highly time-resolved chemical characterization of nonrefractory submicron particles(NR-PM_1) in Beijing by using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer(HR-ToF-AMS). The results showed the average NR-PM_1 mass concentration to be 56.4 ± 58.0 μg/m~3, with a peak at 307.4 μg/m~3. Due to the high frequency of biomass burning in autumn, submicron particles significantly increased in organic content, which accounted for 51% of NR-PM_1 on average. Secondary inorganic aerosols(sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) accounted for 46% of NR-PM_1, of which sulfate,nitrate, and ammonium contributed 15%, 20%, and 11%, respectively. To determine the intrinsic relationships between the organic and inorganic species, we used the positive matrix factorization(PMF) model to merge the high-resolution mass spectra of the organic species and NO+and NO_2~+ions. The PMF analysis separated the mixed organic and nitrate(NO+and NO_2~+) spectra into four organic factors, including hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol(HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol(OOA), cooking organic aerosol(COA), and biomass burning organic aerosol(BBOA), as well as one nitrate inorganic aerosol(NIA) factor. COA(33%) and OOA(30%) contributed the most to the total organic aerosol(OA) mass, followed by BBOA(20%) and HOA(17%). We successfully quantified the mass concentrations of the organic and inorganic nitrates by the NO+and NO2+ions signal in the organic and NIA factors. The organic nitrate mass varied from 0.01-6.8 μg/m~3, with an average of 1.0 ±1.1 μg/m~3, and organic nitrate components accounted for 10% of the total nitrate mass in this observation.  相似文献
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