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1.
基于遥感的北京市城市化发展与城市热岛效应变化关系研究   总被引:32,自引:5,他引:27  
下垫面改变、大量人为热排放及城市区域本身的温室气体排放是导致城市热岛产生的主要原因,城市规模则决定了城市区域热岛效应的影响规模与强度,进而影响区域空气中污染物的扩散.利用1978年以来不同时段的遥感影像对北京城市用地、绿地、归一化植被指数、城市热岛区面积进行了监测,分析了北京市20余年来城市规模的变化及空间布局特征、城市绿地变化、城市热岛效应及其相关关系,旨在为城市合理布局,改善环境状况提供基本信息.结果表明,北京市20余年来城市热岛区面积增长明显,2000年以来四环内由于绿地面积增长、城市结构日趋合理,城市热岛有减缓的趋势.  相似文献
2.
上海城市热岛效应的特征分析   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
根据上海市城区和郊区的6个Davis自动气象观测仪,1998、1999年两年观测记录,分析了近年来上海市城市热岛的变化特征。结果表明:上海市全年出现城市热岛的概率为85.13%,大多数的热岛强度约为2~3℃,有时可以达到3~5℃,最大热岛强度可达7.37℃;上海市城市热岛可分为A、B两大类,A类日变化较平稳,强度较弱,主要发生在春夏季节;而B类有明显的日变化,强度较大,基本上发生在秋冬季节,上海市  相似文献
3.
RS与GIS在城市热岛效应研究中的应用   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
以 TM热红外波段的遥感图象数据 ,结合遥感图象处理软件和地理信息系统软件分别对各种城市用地类型及市内各城区的光谱反射值进行统计 ,同时 ,也对市区和郊区的气象数据进行统计。根据热岛效应的特征、空间分布及其变化 ,提出了相应的防治对策。  相似文献
4.
RS与GIS支持下城市热岛效应与绿地空间相关性研究   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
在RS和GIS技术支持下,以LANDSAT ETM 为数据源.综合运用遥感热红外影像的地温反演、遥感影像分割、空间聚集性分析、混合像元分解、基于遥感信息模型的地理建模及多元线性回归分析等技术,提取了青岛市城市热岛与绿地空间格局,并定量分析了绿地格局与城市热岛效应的相关性及其对城市热岛的缓解机制.结果表明:城市热岛效应在给定尺度上与植被盖度呈负相关关系,与绿地斑块密度指数和分维数呈正相关关系.  相似文献
5.
World-wide urbanization has significantly modified the landscape, which has important climatic implications across all scales due to the simultaneous removal of natural land cover and introduction of urban materials. This resulted in a phenomenon known as an urban heat island(UHI). A study on the UHI in Xiamen of China was carried out using remote sensing technology. Satellite thermal infrared images were used to determine surface radiant temperatures. Thermal remote sensing data were obtained from band 6 of two Landsat TM/ETM^ images of 1989 and 2000 to observe the UHI changes over l l-year period. The thermal infrared bands were processed through several image enhancement technologies. This generated two 3-dimension-perspective images of Xiamen‘s urban heat island in 1989 and 2000, respectively, and revealed heat characteristics and spatial distribution features of the UHI. To find out the change of the UHI between 1989 and 2000, the two thermal images were first normalized and scaled to seven grades to reduce seasonal difference and then overlaid to produce a difference image by subtracting corresponding pixels. The difference image showed an evident development of the urban heat island in the 11 years. This change was due largely to the urban expansion with a consequent alteration in the ratio of sensible heat flux to latent heat flux. To quantitatively compare UHI, an index called Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index(URI) was created. It can reveal the intensity of the UHI within the urban area. The calculation of the index was based on the ratio of UHI area to urban area. The greater the index, the more intense the UHI was. The calculation of the index for the Xiamen City indicated that the ratio of UHI area to urban area in 2000 was less than that in 1989. High temperatures in several areas in 1989 were reduced or just disappeared, such as those in old downtown area and Gulangyu lsland. For the potential mitigation of the UHI in Xiamen, a long-term heat island reduction strategy of planting shade trees and using light-colored, highly reflective roof and paving materials should be included in the plans of the city planers, environmental managers and other decision-makers to improve the overall urban environment in the future.  相似文献
6.
石家庄地区气温变化和热岛效应分析   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
选用石家庄地区17个气象观测站40年(1961-2000年)的平均气温资料,应用气候学、气候统计中的数学方法,对该地区的气温变化状况和城市热岛效应特征进行了分析。结果表明:40年里石家庄地区气温呈上升趋势,1981年是气温升高的显著跃变点;石家庄城市热岛效应明显,40年里热岛强度平均为0.59℃;其平均增温率为0.0066℃/a,尤其是20世纪80年代以后,热岛强度增加趋势明显,1981-2000年热岛强度平均值较1961-1980年平均值升高了0.10℃;石家庄市热岛强度的增加与市区已建成区面积扩大有密切的关系。  相似文献
7.
Urban Heat Island (UHI) is considered as one of the major problems in the 21st century posed to human beings as a result of urbanization and industrialization of human civilization. The large amount of heat generated from urban structures, as they consume and re-radiate solar radiations, and from the anthropogenic heat sources are the main causes of UHI. The two heat sources increase the temperatures of an urban area as compared to its surroundings, which is known as Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII). The problem is even worse in cities or metropolises with large population and extensive economic activities. The estimated three billion people living in the urban areas in the world are directly exposed to the problem, which will be increased significantly in the near future. Due to the severity of the problem, vast research effort has been dedicated and a wide range of literature is available for the subject. The literature available in this area includes the latest research approaches, concepts, methodologies, latest investigation tools and mitigation measures. This study was carded out to review and summarize this research area through an investigation of the most important feature of UHI. It was concluded that the heat re-radiated by the urban structures plays the most important role which should be investigated in details to study urban heating especially the UHI. It was also concluded that the future research should be focused on design and planning parameters for reducing the effects of urban heat island and ultimately living in a better environment.  相似文献
8.
上海的城市热岛   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
由城市独特的下垫面和人类活动产生的大量“人为热”,形成了城市比四周乡村温度高的城市热岛,这已经是众所周知的事实。但是,一个城市中热岛的出现频率、强度及其季节变化和日变化等,须有一个定量的估计。本文选择上海市区的10个城市气象哨和城市边缘的龙华站、近郊的莘庄站、远郊的松江站1983年至1987年的气温资料,进行初步的定量分析。测站位置见图1。一、热岛的水平分布上海市区1983~1987年的年平均气温分布如图2所示。由图2可以看出,热岛中心位于市中心的静安区一带,市区东北部的杨浦区还存在一个弱的次中心。等温线与黄浦江在市区的走向完全一致,浦西为暖区,浦东为冷区。  相似文献
9.
成都平原城市热岛效应的遥感分析   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
将AVHRR第4通道数据经过辐射校正,再计算得到等效辐射亮温。用城市与郊区的亮温之差代表热岛温度,并以摄氏温标表示。采用统计、平面等值线和三维立体等方法,统计分析了成都平原12个城市的热岛最大强度!Tmax;分析了成都市白天和夜间城市热岛的动态变化规律,从宏观上形象地展示了成都平原的城市热岛现象及其特点。研究证明:利用NOAA/热红外遥感数据进行城市热岛效应的快速监测和宏观动态分析是可行的。  相似文献
10.
应用美国Tiros-N卫星资料对上海地区下垫面温度分析的结果表明,在晴天城市下垫面温度均高于郊区。城市内部下垫面温度差异则与人口密度,建筑物密度、工厂密集区以及黄浦江、苏州河水域温度特征有关。 通过对接近同步的卫星下垫面温度资料与实测气温资料的对比分析,发现白天城市下垫面增温速率比郊区快,而气温的增温率相差不大。因此白天当下垫面温度热岛十分显著时,气温热岛并不一定显著,甚至完全不存在。但与此同时,白天城市下垫面的增温引起的能量下传和储存却为夜间城市热岛的形成奠定了能量基础。这部分能量在日落以后,以长波辐射湍流热交换等形式提供给城市大气,部分地补偿了由于大气长波辐射而损失的能量,使城市气温下降缓慢,相对于降温较快的郊区来说,便形成了城市热岛。  相似文献
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