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1.
持续放牧和围封对科尔沁退化沙地草地碳截存的影响   总被引:26,自引:4,他引:22       下载免费PDF全文
研究了科尔沁退化沙地草地持续放牧和围封恢复下土壤-植物系统的碳(C)贮存,以揭示草地管理对C动态的影响.结果表明,0~15cm土壤OC和植物系统贮存的C(包括初级生产固定的C,立枯和地表凋落物C和根系C)贮量大小为:围封10年草地(584g·m-2和309 g·m-2)>围封5年草地(524g·m-2和146g·m-2)>持续放牧草地(493g·m-2和95 g·m-2).在围封10年,围封5年和持续放牧草地中,0~15cm土壤贮存C分别占各自土壤-植物系统C的65.3%,78.2%和83.9%.在风蚀严重的科尔沁沙地,持续放牧对植被,土壤及其周围环境有极严重的恶化作用.采取围封恢复措施后,植被恢复和凋落物积累使土壤免遭风蚀,也显著增加了土壤有机质的输入,因而显著作用于大气C的截存.但排除家畜放牧的长期围封使植物C向土壤C的再循环受到限制,截存的大部分C以凋落物的形式积存在土壤表面,需进一步深入研究围封的时间尺度.研究结果表明,退化沙地草地在采取有效的保护措施后,可以由C源变为C汇.  相似文献
2.
Data collection of soil organic carbon(SOC) of 154 soil series of Jiangsu, China from the second provincial soil survey and of recent changes in SOC from a number of field pilot experiments across the province were collected. Statistical analysis of SOC contents and soil properties related to organic carbon storage were performed. The provincial total topsoil SOC stock was estimated to be O. 1 Pg with an extended pool of 0.4 Pg taking soil depth of 1 m, being relatively small compared to its total land area of lOl?00 km^2. One quarter of this topsoil stock was found in the soils of the Taihu Lake region that occupied 1/6 of the provincial arable area. Paddy soils accounted for over 50% of this stock in terms of SOC distribution among the soil types in the province. Experimental data from experimental farms widely distributed in the province showed that SOC storage increased consistently over the last 20 years despite a previously reported decreasing tendency during the period between 1950--1970. The evidence indicated that agricultural management practices such as irrigation, straw return and rotation of upland crops with rice or wheat crops contributed significantly to the increase in SOC storage. The annual carbon sequestration rate in the soils was in the range of 0.3-3.5 tC/(hm^2. a), depending on cropping systems and other agricultural practices. Thus, the agricultural production in the province, despite the high input, could serve as one of the practical methods to mitigate the increasing air CO2.  相似文献
3.
不同种植模式对土壤团聚体及有机碳组分的影响   总被引:10,自引:4,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
结合在有机农场近10年的定位研究,通过同步采样分析,比较了有机种植和常规种植两种不同模式下土壤团聚体组成、分配及团聚体内有机碳组分的差异.结果表明,常规种植模式下随着团聚体粒级的减小,团聚体4个粒级(﹥1 mm、1~0.5 mm、0.5~0.25 mm和﹤0.25 mm)的含量均值分别为23.75%、15.15%、19.98%和38.09%,而有机种植模式下各粒级团聚体(﹥1 mm、1~0.5 mm、0.5~0.25 mm和﹤0.25 mm)的含量分别为9.73%、18.41%、24.46%和43.90%,﹤0.25 mm微团聚体含量显著高于常规种植.有机种植模式提高了土壤有机碳和全氮含量,平均值分别为17.95 g·kg-1和1.51 g·kg-1.有机种植模式下相同粒级间,团聚体中重组有机碳平均含量显著高于常规种植,且重组有机碳在﹤0.25 mm这部分稳定性有机碳主要储存场所的微团聚体中富集.有机种植模式下易氧化态碳在﹥1 mm大团聚体中的含量显著高于常规种植,其它粒级间没有显著差异,易氧化态碳在﹥1 mm大团聚体中富集.有机种植模式增加了土壤有机碳及其组分含量,缓解了耕作对团聚体的破坏,并增强了有机碳的稳定性.有机种植有利于土壤固碳,这为进一步加快我国有机农业的发展提供了理论依据.  相似文献
4.
湖南省稻田表层土壤固碳潜力模拟研究   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
稻田土壤有机碳的储存对于缓解大气温室效应具有不可忽视的作用。我国作为水稻产量最大的国家,迫切需要掌握稻田生态系统固碳现状及相应固碳措施。文章利用自主建立的土壤有机碳模型对湖南省稻田生态系统不同有机物投入方式下土壤有机碳的变化进行了模拟研究。结果表明,常规施肥(现状)方式下稻田表层土壤有机碳的饱和固碳量为39.75~64.90th/m2,半数模拟点已基本饱和,其余点仍具有3.38~4.19th/m2的固碳潜力;50%秸秆还田效果低于常规施肥方式,而50%秸秆+绿肥效果高于常规方式(平均高10.94th/m2);全量秸秆还田(冬闲)情况下稻田表层土壤饱和固碳量在55.57~94.25th/m2之间,与稻田现有碳储量比较有4.15~33.46th/m2的潜在提高幅度。如果全量秸秆还田结合冬季种植绿肥,土壤饱和固碳量则可以在稻田土壤现有碳储量的基础上平均提高65.77%。模拟结果还表明,湖南稻田土壤中,每年投入1th/m2的新鲜有机碳可最终形成土壤有机碳饱和固碳量约12th/m2。研究表明,稻田土壤的饱和固碳量可以通过人为措施进行调控,增加有机物质的投入量(秸秆还田)和冬季绿肥种植是提高稻田土壤固碳能力的有效途径。  相似文献
5.
生物炭碳封存技术研究进展   总被引:6,自引:4,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
姜志翔  郑浩  李锋民  王震宇 《环境科学》2013,34(8):3327-3333
生物炭(biochar)是一种在无氧或者限氧的条件下,对生物质原料进行高温热解而得到的一种细粒度、多孔性的碳质材料,其稳定的芳烃结构使之在土壤中对生物和非生物氧化具有较强的抗性,成为一种有效的碳封存技术,并受到越来越多的关注.通过对生物炭碳封存机制的阐述,重点评述了生物炭的制备、稳定性及植物生长和土壤有机碳对生物炭添加的响应等方面对生物炭碳封存潜力的影响,并初步考察了生物炭碳封存潜力和经济性等方面的研究进展.最后针对目前关于影响生物炭碳封存潜力因素以及这些因素之间相互关系等方面的研究中存在的问题和不足,提出了进一步研究的方向,为我国生物炭技术的研究和应用提供有益参考.  相似文献
6.
Carbon Management in Agricultural Soils   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
World soils have been a major source of enrichment of atmospheric concentration of CO2 ever since the dawn of settled agriculture, about 10,000 years ago. Historic emission of soil C is estimated at 78 ± 12 Pg out of the total terrestrial emission of 136 ± 55 Pg, and post-industrial fossil fuel emission of 270 ± 30 Pg. Most soils in agricultural ecosystems have lost 50 to 75% of their antecedent soil C pool, with the magnitude of loss ranging from 30 to 60 Mg C/ha. The depletion of soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is exacerbated by soil drainage, plowing, removal of crop residue, biomass burning, subsistence or low-input agriculture, and soil degradation by erosion and other processes. The magnitude of soil C depletion is high in coarse-textured soils (e.g., sandy texture, excessive internal drainage, low activity clays and poor aggregation), prone to soil erosion and other degradative processes. Thus, most agricultural soils contain soil C pool below their ecological potential. Adoption of recommend management practices (e.g., no-till farming with crop residue mulch, incorporation of forages in the rotation cycle, maintaining a positive nutrient balance, use of manure and other biosolids), conversion of agriculturally marginal soils to a perennial land use, and restoration of degraded soils and wetlands can enhance the SOC pool. Cultivation of peatlands and harvesting of peatland moss must be strongly discouraged, and restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems encouraged especially in developing countries. The rate of SOC sequestration is 300 to 500 Kg C/ha/yr under intensive agricultural practices, and 0.8 to 1.0 Mg/ha/yr through restoration of wetlands. In soils with severe depletion of SOC pool, the rate of SOC sequestration with adoption of restorative measures which add a considerable amount of biomass to the soil, and irrigated farming may be 1.0 to 1.5 Mg/ha/yr. Principal mechanisms of soil C sequestration include aggregation, high humification rate of biosolids applied to soil, deep transfer into the sub-soil horizons, formation of secondary carbonates and leaching of bicarbonates into the ground water. The rate of formation of secondary carbonates may be 10 to 15 Kg/ha/yr, and the rate of leaching of bicarbonates with good quality irrigation water may be 0.25 to 1.0 Mg C/ha/yr. The global potential of soil C sequestration is 0.6 to 1.2 Pg C/yr which can off-set about 15% of the fossil fuel emissions.  相似文献
7.
Approximately half of the carbon in trees can be fixed to charcoal by carbonization. Porous charcoal is useful as a soil amendment for crop fields and forests, and also as a water purifying agent. Given these facts, charcoal production should be recognized as one of the most promising CO2 sequestration methods. A project on biomass utilization and forest conservation is proposed as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project, by incorporating the carbonization of biomass residue and waste from tree plantations and pulp mills, and also the utilization of carbon products in various fields. A feasibility study was conducted with the existing project of an industrial tree plantation and pulp production in Indonesia. If conventional charcoal-making methods are used, a total of 368,000 t yr-1 of biomass residue and waste could be transformed into charcoal of77,000 t yr-1, and the carbon emission reductions by the project reaches 62,000t-C yr-1 (or 230,000 t-CO2yr-1) in consideration of the project baseline. This charcoal project could provide jobs for approximately 2,600people. The soil fertility in man-made forests could be maintained by returning charcoal to the original forests. Therefore, the project would be beneficial to the regional economy. In addition, the present charcoal project is expected to give more positive impacts than negative ones, or leakage, beyond the project boundary. This revised version was published online in August 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
8.
闫玉春  唐海萍  常瑞英  刘亮 《环境科学》2008,29(5):1388-1393
以围封26 a草地(E26)为对照,研究了内蒙古典型草原区长期开垦与放牧对土壤-植物根系系统碳截存的影响.结果表明,0~40 cm土壤和根系中的C贮量, E26(7 307.59和950.32 g·m-2)≈连续放牧草地(LG)(7834.01和843.43 g·m-2)>开垦35 a耕地(LC)(4537.04和277.35 g·m-2). E26、LG和LC中,0~40 cm土壤贮存的C分别占各自土壤-根系系统C总贮量的88.49%、90.28%和94.24%.长期开垦完全破坏了草地原生的植被-土壤系统,造成严重的土壤风蚀:相对于E26,比中O~10 cm和10~20 cm砂粒含量分别增加了81%和39%,0~40 cm土层中根系生物量减少了71%;长期开垦导致草地土壤及根系碳截存分别降低了37.9%和70.8%.因此,在草原地区,若将长期开垦的耕地恢复为天然草地,土壤和植物根系将会有较大的固碳潜力.放牧对该区土壤有机碳含量及根系生长的影响较小;但长期放牧样地土壤表层容重显著增加,预示目前放牧压力已达到或接近草地的承载阈值,应及时减小放牧压力以避免草地的进一步退化.  相似文献
9.
农田土壤有机碳储量和固碳潜力是陆地碳循环和全球气候变化研究中的一个重要问题。论文基于第二次土壤普查数据和实地取样数据,利用土壤类型法估算松嫩平原玉米带农田表层土壤有机碳储量,分析4个县市(德惠市、九台市、农安县、公主岭市)农田表层土壤碳库的饱和水平和固碳潜力,比较旱田与水田土壤固碳潜力的差异。结果表明,1980-2005年间,松嫩平原玉米带农田土壤有机碳储量增加了7.20 TgC。各县市农田土壤碳库的饱和水平以德惠市最大,为4.11 kgC·m-2,九台市次之,公主岭市最低,为3.14 kgC·m-2。假设在1980年土地利用方式、耕作措施、施肥水平和气候条件不变的情况下,估算得到松嫩平原玉米带农田土壤的固碳潜力为8.17 TgC。从单位面积固碳潜力看,九台市最高,为0.77 kgC·m-2,农安县次之,德惠市和公主岭市均低于松嫩平原玉米带。松嫩平原玉米带旱田和水田土壤碳库的饱和水平基本持平。  相似文献
10.
碳汇价值的形成和评价   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
在碳减排形势下,如何评价固碳收益价值具有重要的理论与实践意义。论文首先从全球气候变化与碳排放的关联、碳排放与现有经济体系的关联、碳排放空间成为稀缺资源三个方面论证了碳汇效用价值形成的现实基础。然后评述了碳汇价值的构成与度量方法,指出了碳固定与碳蓄积价值的内涵差异。继而总结了碳汇价值的实现机制,认为可以通过碳交易、碳税和固碳项目实际成本3种机制实现碳价格,并在此基础上通过补偿实现碳汇价值。  相似文献
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