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1.
基于遥感的北京市城市化发展与城市热岛效应变化关系研究   总被引:32,自引:5,他引:27  
下垫面改变、大量人为热排放及城市区域本身的温室气体排放是导致城市热岛产生的主要原因,城市规模则决定了城市区域热岛效应的影响规模与强度,进而影响区域空气中污染物的扩散.利用1978年以来不同时段的遥感影像对北京城市用地、绿地、归一化植被指数、城市热岛区面积进行了监测,分析了北京市20余年来城市规模的变化及空间布局特征、城市绿地变化、城市热岛效应及其相关关系,旨在为城市合理布局,改善环境状况提供基本信息.结果表明,北京市20余年来城市热岛区面积增长明显,2000年以来四环内由于绿地面积增长、城市结构日趋合理,城市热岛有减缓的趋势.  相似文献
2.
上海城市热岛效应的特征分析   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
根据上海市城区和郊区的6个Davis自动气象观测仪,1998、1999年两年观测记录,分析了近年来上海市城市热岛的变化特征。结果表明:上海市全年出现城市热岛的概率为85.13%,大多数的热岛强度约为2~3℃,有时可以达到3~5℃,最大热岛强度可达7.37℃;上海市城市热岛可分为A、B两大类,A类日变化较平稳,强度较弱,主要发生在春夏季节;而B类有明显的日变化,强度较大,基本上发生在秋冬季节,上海市  相似文献
3.
北京城市热岛效应对气温和降水量的影响   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16       下载免费PDF全文
借助非参数MannK-endall统计检验方法,对北京市20个气象站44年(1961—2004年)的逐月平均气温和降水资料进行了较为详细的分析。结果表明:①时间上,44年来北京市气温呈持续上升趋势,20世纪80年代为跃变点,跃变后增温趋势更加显著,而降水量呈下降趋势;通过分析5年滑动平均演变图发现,对气温而言,市区增温趋势明显高于郊区,市区和郊区44年来分别以0.44℃/10a和0.01℃/10a的趋势递增,降水量从总体上来说44年来城、郊差异不大,市区和郊区44年来分别以1.82mma/和1.49mma/的趋势递减。②空间上,对年平均气温而言,市区内存在一个明显的上升中心,且等值线较为密集,海淀站Kendall倾斜度高达0.776℃/10a,由于城市热岛效应的存在,1、4、7、10月在市区均存在一个闭合的暖中心,市区内增温幅度大于郊区;对降水量而言,1、4、7、10月在市区和佛爷顶一带均存在着上升中心,降水量呈现上升的趋势,这可能与城市热岛效应的影响有关。  相似文献
4.
World-wide urbanization has significantly modified the landscape, which has important climatic implications across all scales due to the simultaneous removal of natural land cover and introduction of urban materials. This resulted in a phenomenon known as an urban heat island(UHI). A study on the UHI in Xiamen of China was carried out using remote sensing technology. Satellite thermal infrared images were used to determine surface radiant temperatures. Thermal remote sensing data were obtained from band 6 of two Landsat TM/ETM^ images of 1989 and 2000 to observe the UHI changes over l l-year period. The thermal infrared bands were processed through several image enhancement technologies. This generated two 3-dimension-perspective images of Xiamen‘s urban heat island in 1989 and 2000, respectively, and revealed heat characteristics and spatial distribution features of the UHI. To find out the change of the UHI between 1989 and 2000, the two thermal images were first normalized and scaled to seven grades to reduce seasonal difference and then overlaid to produce a difference image by subtracting corresponding pixels. The difference image showed an evident development of the urban heat island in the 11 years. This change was due largely to the urban expansion with a consequent alteration in the ratio of sensible heat flux to latent heat flux. To quantitatively compare UHI, an index called Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index(URI) was created. It can reveal the intensity of the UHI within the urban area. The calculation of the index was based on the ratio of UHI area to urban area. The greater the index, the more intense the UHI was. The calculation of the index for the Xiamen City indicated that the ratio of UHI area to urban area in 2000 was less than that in 1989. High temperatures in several areas in 1989 were reduced or just disappeared, such as those in old downtown area and Gulangyu lsland. For the potential mitigation of the UHI in Xiamen, a long-term heat island reduction strategy of planting shade trees and using light-colored, highly reflective roof and paving materials should be included in the plans of the city planers, environmental managers and other decision-makers to improve the overall urban environment in the future.  相似文献
5.
石家庄地区气温变化和热岛效应分析   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
选用石家庄地区17个气象观测站40年(1961-2000年)的平均气温资料,应用气候学、气候统计中的数学方法,对该地区的气温变化状况和城市热岛效应特征进行了分析。结果表明:40年里石家庄地区气温呈上升趋势,1981年是气温升高的显著跃变点;石家庄城市热岛效应明显,40年里热岛强度平均为0.59℃;其平均增温率为0.0066℃/a,尤其是20世纪80年代以后,热岛强度增加趋势明显,1981-2000年热岛强度平均值较1961-1980年平均值升高了0.10℃;石家庄市热岛强度的增加与市区已建成区面积扩大有密切的关系。  相似文献
6.
Urban Heat Island (UHI) is considered as one of the major problems in the 21st century posed to human beings as a result of urbanization and industrialization of human civilization. The large amount of heat generated from urban structures, as they consume and re-radiate solar radiations, and from the anthropogenic heat sources are the main causes of UHI. The two heat sources increase the temperatures of an urban area as compared to its surroundings, which is known as Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII). The problem is even worse in cities or metropolises with large population and extensive economic activities. The estimated three billion people living in the urban areas in the world are directly exposed to the problem, which will be increased significantly in the near future. Due to the severity of the problem, vast research effort has been dedicated and a wide range of literature is available for the subject. The literature available in this area includes the latest research approaches, concepts, methodologies, latest investigation tools and mitigation measures. This study was carded out to review and summarize this research area through an investigation of the most important feature of UHI. It was concluded that the heat re-radiated by the urban structures plays the most important role which should be investigated in details to study urban heating especially the UHI. It was also concluded that the future research should be focused on design and planning parameters for reducing the effects of urban heat island and ultimately living in a better environment.  相似文献
7.
广州城区大气环境变化及其影响研究   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
以广州市区大气环境监测的十几年数据为依据,采用定性和定量相结合的方法,得出了广州市大气环境质量恶化,污染物以氮氧化物为主,热岛效应增强,酸雨频率上升等结论,并对其发生变化的原因作了综合分析,同时指出,大气环境变化后对文稿市部分气候因子,市民身体健康,风景区产生一定的负面影响。  相似文献
8.
城市热环境及其微热环境的改善   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
以苏南5市县30年来热环境诸因素的变化资料为依据,分析城市区域特征所引起的热环境诸因素的变化趋势,介绍包括规划城市区域的道路网,控制建筑物布局的密度,以及城市绿化和水面等在内的城市规划和建筑设计措施对于改善城市区域微热环境的效用。  相似文献
9.
防御城市高温灾害、减低夏季热岛强度的途径   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
以上海市气象观测资料为基础,探讨了在区域性高温背景下,叠加上城市热岛效应所导致的高温灾害的成因及危害,提出了减低危害的对策及途径。  相似文献
10.
成都平原城市热岛效应的遥感分析   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
将AVHRR第4通道数据经过辐射校正,再计算得到等效辐射亮温。用城市与郊区的亮温之差代表热岛温度,并以摄氏温标表示。采用统计、平面等值线和三维立体等方法,统计分析了成都平原12个城市的热岛最大强度!Tmax;分析了成都市白天和夜间城市热岛的动态变化规律,从宏观上形象地展示了成都平原的城市热岛现象及其特点。研究证明:利用NOAA/热红外遥感数据进行城市热岛效应的快速监测和宏观动态分析是可行的。  相似文献
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