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中国城市污泥的重金属含量及其变化趋势   总被引:146,自引:8,他引:138       下载免费PDF全文
对相关研究结果的系统统计表明,Zn是我国城市污泥中平均含量最高的重金属元素,其次是Cu,再次是Cr,而毒性较大的元素Hg、Cd、As含量往往较低,通常在几个到十几个mg/kg范围内;70%统计样本的As含量在20ms/kg以内,而Cd、Cr、Ca、Hg、Ni、Pb、Zn含量则分别在2.8、250、417、5、75、130、1701ms/kg以内.我国城市污泥中的重金属含量普遍低于英美等发达国家,而且其中的重金属含量呈现逐渐降低的趋势.按照1984年颁布的《农用污泥污染物控制标准》(GB4284-84),Zn是我国城市污泥中超标问题最突出的重金属,其超标率为55%;但按照2002年新修订的《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准(报批稿)》,Zn的超标率仅为9%.一方面,我国的土壤和儿童普遍缺Zn,另一方面,我国现行的农用污泥污染物控制标准对城市污泥中的Zn控制过于严格,而且也不尽合理,急需对其进一步完善,以合理解决城市污泥的处理处置途径,推动城市污泥的资源化和无害化利用.  相似文献
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Land application of contaminated waste products has been defended as beneficial use by some scientists and regulators, based on the premise that the behavior of any toxins accumulated in soils from this practice is reasonably well understood and will not have detrimental agronomic or environmental impacts into the foreseeable future. In this review, I use the case of toxic metals in sewage sludges applied to agricultural land to illustrate that metal behavior in soils and plant uptake is difficult to generalize because it is strongly dependent on the nature of the metal, sludge, soil properties and crop. Nevertheless, permitted agricultural loadings of toxic metals from sewage sludges are typically regulated using the sole criterion of total metal loading or concentrations in soils. Several critical generalizing assumptions about the behavior of sludge-borne metals in soil-crop systems, built into the US EPA risk assessment for metals, have tended to underestimate risks and are shown not to be well justified by published research. It is argued that, in the absence of a basic understanding of metal behavior in each specific situation, a more precautionary approach to toxic metal additions to soils is warranted.  相似文献
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