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Human risk assessment of As, Cd, Cu and Zn in the abandoned metal mine site   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The cancer risk and the non-cancer hazard index for inhabitants exposed to As, Cd, Cu and Zn in the soils and stream waters of the abandoned Songcheon Au–Ag mine area were evaluated. Mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in agricultural soils were 230, 2.5, 120, 160, and 164 mg kg−1, respectively. Mean concentrations of As, Cd and Zn of the water in the stream where drinking water was drawn was 246 μg L−1, 161 μg L−1 and 3899 μg L−1, respectively. These levels are significantly higher than the permissible levels for drinking water quality recommended by Korea and WHO. The resulting human health risks to farmers who inhabited the surrounding areas due to drinking water were summarized as follows: (1) the non-cancer health hazard indices showed that the toxic risk due to As and Cd in drinking water were 10 and 4 times, respectively, greater than those induced by the safe average daily dosages of the respective chemicals. (2) the cancer risk of As for exposed individuals through the drinking water pathway was 5 in 1000, exceeded the acceptable risk of 1 in 10,000 set for regulatory purposes.  相似文献
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Decades of intensive industrial and agricultural practices as well as rapid urbanization have left communities like Pueblo, Colorado facing potential health threats from pollution of its soils, air, water and food supply. To address such concerns about environmental contamination, we conducted an urban geochemical study of the city of Pueblo to offer insights into the potential chemical hazards in soil and inform priorities for future health studies and population interventions aimed at reducing exposures to inorganic substances. The current study characterizes the environmental landscape of Pueblo in terms of heavy metals, and relates this to population distributions. Soil was sampled within the city along transects and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). We also profiled Pueblo’s communities in terms of their socioeconomic status and demographics. ArcGIS 9.0 was used to perform exploratory spatial data analysis and generate community profiles and prediction maps. The topsoil in Pueblo contains more As, Cd, Hg and Pb than national soil averages, although average Hg content in Pueblo was within reported baseline ranges. The highest levels of As concentrations ranged between 56.6 and 66.5 ppm. Lead concentrations exceeded 300 ppm in several of Pueblo’s residential communities. Elevated levels of lead are concentrated in low-income Hispanic and African-American communities. Areas of excessively high Cd concentration exist around Pueblo, including low income and minority communities, raising additional health and environmental justice concerns. Although the distribution patterns vary by element and may reflect both industrial and non-industrial sources, the study confirms that there is environmental contamination around Pueblo and underscores the need for a comprehensive public health approach to address environmental threats in urban communities.  相似文献
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福建省稻米中的砷水平及其健康风险研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
为更好了解区域水平上水稻(OryzasativaL.)砷所引起的健康风险,在福建省9个地区采集了206份水稻样品并对其总砷和无机砷含量进行了分析,然后在此基础上建立风险评价模型并对其健康风险进行了评价。结果表明,福建省水稻精米中总砷平均含量为(0.105±0.091)mg·kg-1,无机砷平均含量为(0.045±0.019)mg·kg-1。全省所有样品中无机砷含量符合中国国家标准规定的限量标准(MCL)0.15mg·kg-1。通过膳食调查的数据和水稻无机砷含量对每天通过稻米消费无机砷摄入量进行了计算,全省平均每天无机砷摄入量为13.50μg,并且9个地区每天无机砷摄入量均超过了美国国家研究委员会所规定的最大限量标准10μg·d-1。根据无机砷摄入量和癌症斜率因子所构建的癌症风险模型结果表明,福建省稻米无机砷所引起的癌症风险为每100000有37.5人,虽然低于中国的平均水平(每100000有61人),但是超过了美国国家环境保护局所规定的可以接受的癌症风险的上限(每100000人有10人)。因此,需要进一步通过流行病学方面的调查来确定福建省稻米无机砷摄入和健康风险之间的关系。  相似文献
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临汾市售蔬菜中多环芳烃污染特征及致癌风险分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
为了研究临汾市食物中多环芳烃(PAHs)的污染特征及对人群的健康影响,本研究于2015年1月采集当地居民普遍食用的9种蔬菜,利用气相色谱 ̄质谱联用仪(GC ̄MS)检测蔬菜中8种多环芳烃(Nap、Ace、Acy、Fle、Phe、Ant、Flu、Pyr)。研究表明,PAHs在9种蔬菜中均有检出,PAHs的总浓度范围是24.86~82.85 ng?g ̄1,平均为44.13 ng?g ̄1。其中PAHs含量最高的是圆白菜(82.85 ng?g ̄1),最低的是山药(24.86 ng?g ̄1)。通过来源分析发现来源地蔬菜中PAHs主要来源于液体化石燃料燃烧。临汾市不同人群食用蔬菜引起的终身增量致癌风险(ILCR)在1.27×10 ̄6~7.07×10 ̄6范围内,在目前蔬菜消费量下存在潜在致癌风险。  相似文献
5.
We examine the value of health risk reductions (microbial illnesses/deaths and bladder cancer illnesses/deaths) in the context of drinking water quality treatment by public systems. When we assume that combined mortality and morbidity risk reductions are equally spread in the future; our results suggest that microbial risk-reduction programs have higher value than cancer risk-reduction programs, but that mortality risk reduction values are not significantly different for cancer and microbials. However, when a 25-year cancer latency is accounted for and a 5% discount rate is used, the value of cancer mortality risk reductions exceeds the value for microbial risk reductions. We also address a number of methodological issues, including performance of alternative choice experiment estimation (CE) techniques, relationship of CE to contingent valuation results, and implications for incorporating morbidity and mortality endpoints in the same survey instrument.  相似文献
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