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1.
Kin recognition in the common lizard   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
The ability to recognize parents has never been reported in species in which parents do not provide care to their young; in such species, only sibling recognition has been found. However, there may be several advantages of parent recognition, even in the absence of parental care. We investigated the ability of neonates to recognize olfactory cues from both their mother and siblings in the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara, a species without parental care. Juveniles from 264 gravid females were reared for 2 days either with their mother, with another female, or separated from all other adults. Juveniles from some families were split into two or three groups so that each juvenile was unfamiliar with a subset of its siblings. After 2 days, we offered the juveniles a choice of two nocturnal shelters: one containing a lizard odor and the other without odor. The response to the odor of an unrelated and unfamiliar adult was influenced by both the sex of the adult and the sex of the juvenile. Juveniles of both sexes recognized the odor of their mother whether they were familiar with her or not (pre-natal determinism). Juveniles recognized familiar but not unfamiliar siblings (post-natal determinism). In the wild, spatial association with kin declines shortly after birth. Thus, recognition of the mother is likely to have biological relevance. Recognition of the mother may reduce competition and/or enhance juvenile establishment. Received: 15 May 1997 / Accepted after revision: 29 December 1997  相似文献
2.
Kin recognition in the common lizard   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
The ability to recognize parents has never been reported in species in which parents do not provide care to their young; in such species, only sibling recognition has been found. However, there may be several advantages of parent recognition, even in the absence of parental care. We investigated the ability of neonates to recognize olfactory cues from both their mother and siblings in the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara, a species without parental care. Juveniles from 264 gravid females were reared for 2 days either with their mother, with another female, or separated from all other adults. Juveniles from some families were split into two or three groups so that each juvenile was unfamiliar with a subset of its siblings. After 2 days, we offered the juveniles a choice of two nocturnal shelters: one containing a lizard odor and the other without odor. The response to the odor of an unrelated and unfamiliar adult was influenced by both the sex of the adult and the sex of the juvenile. Juveniles of both sexes recognized the odor of their mother whether they were familiar with her or not (pre-natal determinism). Juveniles recognized familiar but not unfamiliar siblings (post-natal determinism). In the wild, spatial association with kin declines shortly after birth. Thus, recognition of the mother is likely to have biological relevance. Recognition of the mother may reduce competition and/or enhance juvenile establishment. Received: 15 May 1997 / Accepted after revision: 29 December 1997  相似文献
3.
4.
This study investigates social monogamy in the Australian sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa. At a 70-ha site near Mount Mary, South Australia, we radio tracked 55 adult female and 39 adult male lizards during their spring activity periods. Each lizard was observed in 1–5 years. Females were observed with a single male partner on an average of 10.8 days per year, although in 17.3% of cases, females were observed on 2 or fewer days with a male. The most intense pairing period each year was 15 September–15 November when females were with male partners on an average of 36% of observation days. Partnerships lasted an average of 43.3 days each year. After mating in early November, the pairs separated. Observations of females pairing with other males were rare. Most males (82%) were also consistently monogamous, although 7 were observed pairing with 2 females within one season. To investigate paternity, we allowed 21 gravid females to give birth to 42 offspring in the laboratory. We determined genotypes at five polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci for the females, their male partners and their offspring. Four litters (19%) and 6 of the offspring from those litters (14.3%) showed evidence of extra-pair fertilization (EPF). Although the sample sizes are small, females of polygynous males were more likely to experience EPF. Received: 22 February 1998 / Accepted after revision: 23 May 1998  相似文献
5.
Flat lizards (Platysaurus broadleyi) at Augrabies Falls National Park, South Africa, are restricted to rocky terrain where the predominant tree is the Namaqua fig (Ficus cordata cordata). P. broadleyi readily feeds on Namaqua figs when they are available, and the lizards sometimes form large (maximum recorded=134) congregations under fruiting fig trees. The distance lizards travel to fruiting trees also exceed normal daily foraging distances. Location of fruiting fig trees by a lizard can have a high pay-off because figs are energetically rich and trees fruit irregularly and asynchronously, resulting in a resource that is available, but unpredictable in time and space. The prediction that bird activity in fig trees provides a cue to the presence of ripe figs was tested experimentally. By placing cages containing birds and empty control cages in trees devoid of fruit, we demonstrated that P. broadleyi are drawn to fig trees with high bird congregations. We also tested if the presence of a fig tree was necessary to draw lizards to bird congregations by placing cages containing birds and empty control cages in a matched-pairs design on rock away from trees. Namaqua fig trees were not necessary to draw lizards to bird congregations. Received: 12 May 1998 / Accepted after revision: 30 November 1998  相似文献
6.
This study investigates social monogamy in the Australian sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa. At a 70-ha site near Mount Mary, South Australia, we radio tracked 55 adult female and 39 adult male lizards during their spring activity periods. Each lizard was observed in 1–5 years. Females were observed with a single male partner on an average of 10.8 days per year, although in 17.3% of cases, females were observed on 2 or fewer days with a male. The most intense pairing period each year was 15 September–15 November when females were with male partners on an average of 36% of observation days. Partnerships lasted an average of 43.3 days each year. After mating in early November, the pairs separated. Observations of females pairing with other males were rare. Most males (82%) were also consistently monogamous, although 7 were observed pairing with 2 females within one season. To investigate paternity, we allowed 21 gravid females to give birth to 42 offspring in the laboratory. We determined genotypes at five polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci for the females, their male partners and their offspring. Four litters (19%) and 6 of the offspring from those litters (14.3%) showed evidence of extra-pair fertilization (EPF). Although the sample sizes are small, females of polygynous males were more likely to experience EPF. Received: 22 February 1998 / Accepted after revision: 23 May 1998  相似文献
7.
Comparative data from ten families of lizards suggest that correlated evolution has occurred between the ability to identify prey chemicals and several aspects of lingual function and morphology, abundance of vomeronasal chemoreceptor cells, and foraging behavior. Ability to discriminate prey chemicals from control substances was measured experimentally and correlated with other variables by Felsenstein's method. This ability increased with evolutionary increases in degree of lingual protrusion during tongue-flicking, which may reflect the tongue's ability to reach substrates to be sampled. It increased with deepened lingual forking and greater lingual elongation, which may be important for scent-trailing and sampling ability, respectively. Discriminatory ability also increased with abundance of vomerolfactory chemoreceptors, which presumably reflects some aspects of analytical capacities of the vomeronasal system. Prey chemical discrimination increased with degree of active foraging. Natural selection for improved vomerolfactory sampling and analysis of prey chemicals by active, but not ambush, foragers appears to account for the observed relationships. In active foragers that use vomerolfaction to locate prey, natural selection favors increased abilities to lingually sample chemicals from environmental substrates, analyze the samples for prey chemicals, and respond appropriately if prey chemicals or possible prey chemicals are detected. Such selection can account for the observed relationships among the sampling device and its movements, the sense, the discriminations, and variations in foraging ecology. Received: 13 February 1997 / Accepted after revision: 12 June 1997  相似文献
8.
Many studies on contest competition used residency asymmetry as a discrete variable. However, the probability of winning an interaction may change as a continuous function of the value of the location where the encounter occurs. We performed a field study to examine the importance of location within a home range and relative body size to the outcomes of agonistic interactions between male lizards, Lacerta monticola. The distances to activity centers (the most used locations based on a density function of sightings) and relative size play important roles in agonistic interactions and had interacting effects in natural conditions. On the other hand, previous studies with lizards suggested that inferior competitors are able to avoid agonistic interactions in the field. Thus, we staged encounters in the laboratory to examine the behavioral responses of smaller individuals. The responses of each focal smaller male were measured in its own home cage (resident), in the cage of a larger male (intruder) and in a cage in which no male was previously present (control). The predominant behavioral tactics of smaller males were avoidance when they are the intruders and displaying when they are the residents. Submissive displays by smaller males may help reduce the costs of agonistic encounters.  相似文献
9.
Gidgee skinks (Egernia stokesii) form large social aggregations in rocky outcrops across the Flinders Ranges in South Australia. Group members share refuges (rock crevices), which may promote parasite transmission. We measured connectivity of individuals in networks constructed from patterns of common crevice use and observed patterns of parasitism by three blood parasites (Hemolivia, Schellackia and Plasmodium) and an ectoparasitic tick (Amblyomma vikirri). Data came from a 1-year mark-recapture study of four populations. Transmission networks were constructed to represent possible transmission pathways among lizards. Two lizards that used the same refuge within an estimated transmission period were considered connected in the transmission network. An edge was placed between them, directed towards the individual that occupied the crevice last. Social networks, a sub-set of same-day only associations, were small and highly fragmented compared with transmission networks, suggesting that non-synchronous crevice use leads to more transmission opportunities than direct social association. In transmission networks, lizards infested by ticks were connected to more other tick-infested lizards than uninfected lizards. Lizards infected by ticks and carrying multiple blood parasite infections were in more connected positions in the network than lizards without ticks or with one or no blood parasites. Our findings suggest higher levels of network connectivity may increase the risk of becoming infected or that parasites influence lizard behaviour and consequently their position in the network. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi:) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. This contribution is part of the special issue “Social Networks: new perspectives” (Guest Editors: J. Krause, D. Lusseau and R. James).  相似文献
10.
This paper reports a field investigation of interactions between juveniles and their mothers in the Australian sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa. In their first spring season, juvenile lizards maintain home ranges largely within the home range of their mother. Juvenile home ranges are significantly smaller than those of adult males and females, and juveniles move significantly less often and significantly shorter distances than adults. While siblings were never found together in the spring, they showed a significant tendency to be closer to each other than if they were randomly located in their home ranges. Juveniles and mothers were never found together, nor was there any evidence for any positive (or negative) spatial association. Nevertheless, the extended tolerance of home range overlap represents a greater degree of mother-offspring association than has been previously reported for other lizards. Despite this, the level of parental care can only be described as minimal. Received: 20 June 1997 / Accepted after revision: 29 December 1997  相似文献
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