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固相萃取法提取净化生物检材中三类农药的实验研究   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
孙静  刘耀 《环境化学》1995,14(3):221-225
本文以常见的六种有机磷类、四种氨基甲酸脂类和五种拟种虫菊酯类农药为对象,研究了用国产GDX-403或C18固相小柱同时提取净化环境样品和生物检材中三种类型的农药,分别采用GC/FPD,GC/NPD和GC/ECD三种特征性气相色谱法进行分析鉴定,为系统分析有机农药提供了一套快速、简便的固相提取方法。  相似文献
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离子液体与有机磷农药间的毒性相互作用   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
"绿色"溶剂离子液体(ILs)与其他污染物之间的毒性相互作用已有报道,但相关数据仍较为缺乏。以7种具有不同阴阳离子组成的ILs:溴化丁基吡啶(IL1)、氯化丁基-2,3-二甲基咪唑(IL2)、丁基-3-甲基咪唑翁磷酸盐(IL3)、丁基-3-甲基咪唑正辛基硫酸(IL4)、丁基-2,3-二甲基咪唑二乙二醇单甲醚硫酸盐(IL5)、辛基-3-甲基咪唑二乙基醚单甲磺硫酸(IL6)和氯化己基-3-甲基咪唑(IL7),与5种有机磷农药(OPs):敌敌畏(DIC)、乐果(DIM)、草甘膦(GLY)、久效磷(MON)和磷胺(PHO),作为混合物组分,以等效应浓度比射线法设计7种ILs分别与5种OPs等EC_(50)配比的35组二元混合物,应用微板毒性分析法(MTA)测定这些混合物对青海弧菌Q67的毒性,以浓度加和(CA)和独立作用(IA)为参考模型分析毒性相互作用。结果表明,不同的IL-OP混合物呈现的作用类型不同:如IL1-DIM、IL2-DIM、IL3-DIM、IL6-DIM、IL2-MON和IL7-DIM的混合物呈明显的拮抗作用;IL3-DIC和IL2-GLY的混合物呈明显的协同作用;IL5-DIM和IL4-MON的混合物在较高浓度区呈拮抗作用;而IL3-GLY和IL6-DIC的混合物在较高浓度区呈协同作用;其余的混合物则为加和作用。  相似文献
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We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove useful in helping prioritize the chemicals and transfer pathways targeted in future studies and also, as these new data become available, in assessing the relative danger to other birds of exposure to different types of agricultural chemicals.  相似文献
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以敌敌畏、乐果联合作用于线虫的毒理学实验为基础,基于FH插值法理论,通过较少的实验数据建立有机磷农药二元混合物联合效应模型,求解作用效应表达式并绘制联合效应三维曲面图;基于合并用药分析公式,计算联合作用评价q值并绘制农药浓度与q值的联合作用评价三维曲面图,结果表明敌敌畏与乐果混合物联合作用不仅表现为相加作用,而且还在局部低浓度表现为拮抗作用,与多元统计分析结果一致.上述研究表明FH插值法理论可作为二元有机磷农药联合效应分析及评价的一种新方法.  相似文献
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通过筛选敌敌畏、马拉硫磷和对硫磷3种有机磷农药对水生生物的急性毒性数据和乙酰胆碱酯酶抑制效应数据,构建物种敏感度分布曲线进行了比较分析。结果表明,敌敌畏对水生生物的急性毒性和乙酰胆碱酯酶抑制效应的大小顺序为:酶体内抑制效应>酶体外抑制效应>急性毒性;马拉硫磷和对硫磷的乙酰胆碱酯酶抑制效应数据不足但趋势相似,顺序为:酶体内抑制效应>急性毒性>酶体外抑制效应。敌敌畏的急性毒性和酶体外抑制效应的5%危害浓度(HC5)分别为2.07μg?L ̄1和1.53μg?L ̄1,两者相差1.4倍。在水质基准推导中,乙酰胆碱酯酶抑制效应数据对有机磷农药的水生生物基准具有重要的参考价值。  相似文献
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