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1.
青岛市区土壤天然放射性核素的外照射水平估算研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
城市的辐射环境质量对于人居和发展规划有重要意义。利用伽玛能谱仪对青岛市区内的天然放射性核素进行了大规模高密度的现场测量,采用Beck公式计算了离地面1m高处的空气吸收剂量率,进而计算了外照射年有效剂量、外照射指数和等效镭浓度,对研究区的外照射水平进行了系统的评价。与和其他国家全国比较,虽然该区的空气吸收剂量率较高,但是其他衡量天然放射性核素外照射水平的指标均在容许范围之内。因此该区属于外照射水平的安全区域,人居环境不受影响。  相似文献
2.
239Pu在西南某地板岩与土壤中的吸附行为   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
以西南某极低放废物处置库预选场址地质环境中板岩与土壤为吸附介质,通过吸附实验和解吸实验,研究了不同介质粒径、环境温度(10℃—50℃)、水相pH(4—12)对239Pu核素在板岩与土壤介质中吸附行为的影响特征.吸附实验表明,水相环境中板岩和土壤介质对239Pu核素的吸附过程在10 d左右达到平衡,并且其吸附分配比随着介质粒径的减小而增大,随着水相pH值的增大而增大,但温度对其吸附的影响不明显.解吸实验表明板岩和土壤介质对239Pu核素的吸附是可逆的.  相似文献
3.
This paper presents measurements of major, minor, metal trace elements and radionuclides in sediments and in Posidonia oceanica samples from north-western Sicily (Italy). The mineralogical and chemical composition of sediments were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence techniques, respectively. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in P. oceanica samples and in sediments. Specific activities of selected radionuclides have been determined by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Standard statistical analysis was used to assess correlations between different elements and different sample types.  相似文献
4.
Deep-sea sediments collected in two areas of the Mediterranean Sea having different sedimentological characteristics have been analyzed to determine present concentrations and inventories of 239,240Pu and to study the main mechanisms controlling them. Plutonium distribution in the deepest part of a submarine canyon (Taranto Valley, Ionian Sea) is compared to that obtained in an abyssal plain (north Algerian Plain). in the latter case, sedimentation is mainly due to the sinking of biogenic particles, while in the former lateral transport of terrigenous material along the slope of the canyon can significantly contribute to sediment accumulation on the bottom.

239,240Pu surface concentration in the canyon ranged from 0.2 to 1 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) and this was lower in the abyssal plain. in this area, plutonium was detectable only in the first 4 cm, while in the canyon it was present down to 11-15 cm. 239,240Pu inventories are 3 Bq m-2 in the plain and 45-60 Bq m-2 in the canyon, indicating considerable input of terrigenous material towards the final part of the Taranto Valley.  相似文献
5.
The Baltic Sea is, like the Mediterranean, a marginal sea, which with the Black Sea, were marine environments contaminated from the Chernobyl accident.

Radiocaesium and plutonium isotopes were studied in water, sediment and macroalgae in the Baltic Sea since 1982. the inventory of 137Cs in the Baltic increased from 0.65 PBq to 5.85 PBq following the Chernobyl accident. the corresponding increase for 239 + 240Pu was less significant and yielded 1.5 TBq to a total value of 16.5 TBq.

For plutonium, 98% is trapped in the sediment and the net-exchange of this element through the Baltic straits is very small (1 GBq/year), while for radiocaesium, 45% is in the water phase and there is a net-loss of 60 000 GBq annually into the adjacent water (Kattegatt).  相似文献
6.
In June 1990, sediment cores were obtained from several locations in the Northwest Black Sea shelf and slope by a joint US/USSR scientific team aboard the survey vessel R/V VODYANITSKY. the goal of this investigation was to determine the distribution and levels of radioactivity resulting from the Chernobyl 1986 nuclear accident. the sediment was characterized for texture, mineral composition, redox state, heavy metals, and radionuclides. Correlations emerging from these data reveal paths of dispersal and transport of materials from river sources to deposition sites on the shelf and slope. Kaolinite in the clay mineral suite clearly reflects a dispersal pattern originating in the Danube River and progressing in an easterly direction across the shelf. Sand-size gypsum and the elemental heavy metals Zn, Cu, Cr, and Pb (probable industrial source) as well as the elements Al and Mg (probable terrigenous source) also show a dispersal pattern from the Danube station location in an easterly direction across the shelf. the dispersal direction indicated by these materials is not in conflict with recent existing notions concerning the hydrology of the Northwest Black Sea. Barium anomalies at a midshelf location may be related to operations in the Lebada oil fields situated updrift. Heavy mineral dispersal reflect the Danube and -Crimean Provinces established for the shelf and relate to terrestrial source areas. in addition, the heavy mineral monazite correlates with the radioactive Th 232 found most abundantly in the Crimean Province. Local anomalies of Mn, Fe and U in the sediment at station locations are related to redox (Eh) conditions and other factors. Cs134/137 data, reported by Curtis and Broadway (1991), correspond to transport and dispersal patterns implicit in the mineralogic, anthropogenic indicators, and sediment characteristics of the study area.  相似文献
7.
The impact on the environment ofradionuclide release from nuclear power plants has attracted increased attention, especially after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. Based on the mechanisms of adsorption/desorption at solid/liquid interfaces and a surface micromorphology model of sediments, a theoretical expression of the distribution coefficient Kd is derived. This coefficient has significant effects on the distribution of radionuclide in seawater, suspended sediment and seabed sediment. Kd is then used to simulate ^90Sr transport in the sea near the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. The simulation results are compared with field measurements of tidal level, current velocity, suspended sediment concentration and ^90Sr concentrations in the same period. Overall, the simulated results agree well with the field measured data. Thus, the derived expression for Ka is capable of interpreting realistic adsorption/desorption processes. What's more, conclusion is drawn that about 40% ^90Sr released by Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant will be adsorbed by suspended sediment and 20% by seabed sediment, only about 40% ^90St will remain in the sea near Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in South China Sea.  相似文献
8.
This work aims at discussing some concepts pertaining to the theory and practice of environmental modelling in view of the results of several model validation exercises performed by the group “Model validation for radionuclide transport in the system watershed-river and in estuaries” of project EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) supported by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). The analyses here performed concern models applied to real scenarios of environmental contamination. In particular, the reasons for the uncertainty of the models and the EBUA (empirically based uncertainty analysis) methodology are discussed. The foundations of multi-model approach in environmental modelling are presented and motivated. An application of EBUA to the results of a multi-model exercise concerning three models aimed at predicting the wash-off of radionuclide deposits from the Pripyat floodplain (Ukraine) was described. Multi-model approach is, definitely, a tool for uncertainty analysis. EBUA offers the opportunity of an evaluation of the uncertainty levels of predictions in multi-model applications.  相似文献
9.
People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.  相似文献
10.
Bioleaching from soil artificially contaminated with analogues of radionuclides, Co and Sr, was carried out using a Fe-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Due to bacterial metabolism, the pH and dissolved Fe3+ concentration in a biotic slurry decreased and increased respectively, over time, but the concentrations of Co and Sr extracted from the soil showed no significant enhancement compared with those under abiotic control. In both cases, Co and Sr were leached from the soil during the initial period of the experiment, due to the initially low solution pH of 2.0, and the dissolved concentrations remained almost constant for the duration of the experiment (300 h). Since oxidation of Fe2+ by A. ferrooxidans led to the production of Fe precipitates and colloidal suspensions, the Co and Sr extracted into solution were most likely re-adsorbed onto the Fe solids. Also, A. ferrooxidans, without an external supply of Fe2+, extracted almost equal or greater amounts of Co and Sr from the soil than when Fe2+ was supplied. Under the same leaching conditions, the extent of Sr removal was much lower than that of Co. On the contrary to the high efficiency of microbial metal leaching in biohydrometallurgy for low-graded sulfide ores, which has been widely documented, conventional bioleaching techniques with A. ferrooxidans supplied with enough Fe2+ showed low efficiency for the removal of radionuclides loosely bound onto soil particle surfaces.  相似文献
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