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采用联用技术测定中国海产品中砷的形态   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
1 IntroductionAtthebeginningof2 0 thcentury ,highlevelsofarsenic~mg·kg-1 werefoundinmarineorga nisms,whichattractedalotofattention ,becausearsenicisoneofthemostnotoriouselementsonaccountofitshumantoxicity.Forthisreason ,thedeterminationofthetotalamount…  相似文献
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水产品的摄入是人体暴露于有机氯农药的主要途径之一.实验检测了采自广东省11个沿海城市水产市场的海鲜类水产品(包括6种虾类、2种蟹类和13种贝类共228个样品)中滴滴涕类农药(包括o,p’-DDT、p,p’-DDT、o,p’-DDD、p,p’-DDD、o,p’-DDE和p,p’-DDE)的残留.结果显示,DDTs在虾类、蟹类和贝类体内的平均湿重含量范围分别为0.8 ̄17.6ng·g-1、5.1 ̄16.0ng·g-1和0.6 ̄209.4ng·g-1.不同水产品之间因生活环境和生活习性的不同,导致其DDTs含量存在较大差别.与我国最新的食品残留标准(GB2763-2005)相比,所检测样品DDTs的含量均未超标.但若以美国环境保护局(USEPA)的标准来衡量,则DDTs含量超标的百分率达27.6%.据最近的膳食结构调查显示,广东省沿海地区的居民每天虾、蟹、贝类水产品的平均消费量为26.0g,因而通过海鲜类水产品每天摄入DDTs的量为2.4ng·kgbodyweight-1·day-1,这一结果远远低于我国设定的每日耐受摄入量(PTDI)和联合国粮农组织及世界卫生组织(FAO/WHO)的相关标准.  相似文献
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The New York Bight is perhaps one of the most used and abused coastal areas in the world as a consequence of urbanization and the disposal of the waste of some 20 million people who reside by its shores and surrounding bays and estuaries. A variety of sources, including those associated with sewage wastes, industrial wastes, contaminated dredged material, urban runoff, and atmospheric fallout contaminate these coastal waters. Many of the stresses of excess population and industrialization as measured by pollutant loadings and ecosystem impacts can be crudely quantified in terms of use impairments-use impairments that have measurable social and economic relevance. Five broad categories of impairment attributed to pollution in the Bight that are causing significant losses of ecological, economic, or social values are: beach closures, unsafe seafoods, hazards to commercial and recreational navigation, loss of commercial and recreational fisheries, and declines in birds, mammals and turtles. These impairments are generally caused by floatable wastes, nutrients, toxicants, pathogens and habitat loss. Measures of such impairments are not standard, nor in many cases totally quantifiable. We have examined specific subsets of these impairments in terms of their spatial and temporal changes and as a first approximation determined the economic and social significance of these changes. the cost of these impaired uses of the Bight are measured in terms of billions of dollars annually for New York and New Jersey.  相似文献
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Conservation organizations seeking to reduce over-fishing and promote better fishing practices have increasingly turned to market-based mechanisms such as environmental sustainability labels (eco-labels) in order to shift patterns of household consumption. This paper presents an analysis of consumer response to an advisory for sustainable seafood adopted by a regional supermarket in the United States. The advisory consisted of a label in which one of three traffic light colors was placed on each fresh seafood product to inform consumers about its relative environmental sustainability. Green meant “best” choice, yellow meant “proceed with caution,” and red meant “worst choice”. Using a unique product-level panel scanner data set of weekly sales and taking advantage of the random phase-in of the advisory by the retailer, we apply a difference-in-differences identification strategy to estimate the effect of the advisory on overall seafood sales as well as the heterogeneous impact of the advisory by label color and whether the seafood met additional health-related criteria. We find evidence that the advisory led to a statistically significant 15.3% decline in overall seafood sales, a statistically significant 34.9% decline in the sale of yellow labeled seafood, and a statistically significant 41.3% decline in the sale of yellow labeled seafood on a mercury safe list. We find no statistically significant difference in sales of green or red labeled seafood.  相似文献
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Seafood mislabeling is common in both domestic and international markets. Studies on seafood fraud often report high rates of mislabeling (e.g., >70%), but these studies have been limited to a single sampling year, which means it is difficult to assess the impact of stricter governmental truth‐in‐labeling regulations. We used DNA barcoding to assess seafood labeling in 26 sushi restaurants in Los Angeles over 4 years. Seafood from 3 high‐end grocery stores were also sampled (n = 16) in 2014. We ordered 9 common sushi fish from menus, preserved tissue samples in 95% ethanol, extracted the genomic DNA, amplified and sequenced a portion of the mtDNA COI gene, and identified the resulting sequence to known fish sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information nucleotide database. We compared DNA results with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of acceptable market names and retail names. We considered sushi‐sample labels that were inconsistent with FDA names mislabeled. Sushi restaurants had a consistently high percentage of mislabeling (47%; 151 of 323) from 2012 to 2015, yet mislabeling was not homogenous across species. Halibut, red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail had consistently high (<77%) occurrences of mislabeling on menus, whereas mislabeling of salmon and mackerel were typically low (>15%). All sampled sushi restaurants had at least one case of mislabeling. Mislabeling of sushi‐grade fish from high‐end grocery stores was also identified in red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail, but at a slightly lower frequency (42%) than sushi restaurants. Despite increased regulatory measures and media attention, we found seafood mislabeling continues to be prevalent.  相似文献
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