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1.
中国珍稀格氏栲林的数量特征   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10  
运用伽玛分布,对数正态分布、韦布(Weibull)分布,正态分布等4种概率分布模型对格氏栲林的乔木层、灌木层、藤本层,草本层的物种-多度关系进行拟合分析,并用多种物种多样性指标测定格氏栲林各层次数量特征。结果表明:格氏栲林群落各层次物种-多度关系均符合伽玛分布,即伽玛分布模型应用于格氏栲林物种-多度分布研究是理想的;格氏栲林物种多样性指标介于中亚热带常绿阔叶林与南亚热带季风常绿阔叶林之间,表5参20。  相似文献
2.
物种多度对数正态分布模型的一种数值计算方法   总被引:11,自引:2,他引:9  
物种多度分布格局是生物多样性研究的重要内容.本文针对物种多度分布的对数正态模型计算方法的缺陷,首次提出应用遗传算法计算对数正态模型参数,并与前人计算方法进行了比较,证明遗传算法具有较强的数值计算能力,对生态学中诸多非线性曲线的参数估计具有普遍意义.  相似文献
3.
岷江上游典型退化生态系统鸟类物种多样性的初步研究   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
在岷江上游典型的退化生态系统(十里乡)、逐渐恢复的生态系统(茂县生态站,1986年开始人工恢复)和原始森林及次生高山草甸生态系统(上卡卡沟)选择样地,对其乌类物种多样性在夏秋两季进行了调查,并计算其多样性指数和均匀度指数。各多样性指数的变化有微小差异,但总体一致。综合夏秋两季,茂县生态站夏季的鸟类丰富度、多度和多样性指数值最高,十里乡秋季的鸟类丰富度、多样性指数值最低,上卡卡沟秋季的均匀度指数最高。各群落的相似性指数较低,表明各群落组成有较大差异,拟合各样地鸟类的物种-多度曲线模型,十里乡鸟类的物种-多度模型与对数级数分布拟合,茂县鸟类的物种-多度模型与对数级数分布相似,上卡卡沟鸟类的物种-多度模型与分割线段模型分布拟合,夏秋季的物种-多度模型无明显差异,仅茂县的物种-多度模型与风何级数分布拟合,并对鸟类对生态恢复的监测效应进行了探讨,认为物种-多度模型是良好的生境变化生物指示因子,图3表4参19。  相似文献
4.
A new species abundance estimator is proposed when point-to-plant sampling is adopted in a design-based framework. The method is based on the relationship between each species abundance and the probability density function of the relative squared point-to-plant distance. Using this result, a kernel estimator for species abundance is provided and the nearest neighbor method is suggested for bandwidth selection. The proposed estimator requires no assumptions about the species point patterns nor corrections for sampling near the edges of the study region. Moreover, the estimator shows suitable statistical properties as well as good practical performance as is shown in a simulation study.  相似文献
5.
A dynamic and heterogeneous species abundance model generating the lognormal species abundance distribution is fitted to time series of species data from an assemblage of stoneflies and mayflies (Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera) of an aquatic insect community collected over a period of 15 years. In each year except one, we analyze 5 parallel samples taken at the same time of the season giving information about the over-dispersion in the sampling relative to the Poisson distribution. Results are derived from a correlation analysis, where the correlation in the bivariate normal distribution of log abundance is used as measurement of similarity between communities. The analysis enables decomposition of the variance of the lognormal species abundance distribution into three components due to heterogeneity among species, stochastic dynamics driven by environmental noise, and over-dispersion in sampling, accounting for 62.9, 30.6 and 6.5% of the total variance, respectively. Corrected for sampling the heterogeneity and stochastic components accordingly account for 67.3 and 32.7% of the among species variance in log abundance. By using this method, it is possible to disentangle the effect of heterogeneity and stochastic dynamics by quantifying these components and correctly remove sampling effects on the observed species abundance distribution.  相似文献
6.
Decision tree models were developed to investigate and predict the relative abundance of three key pasture plants [ryegrass (Lolium perenne), browntop (Agrostis capillaris), and white clover (Trifolium repens)] with integration of a geographical information system (GIS) in a naturalised hill-pasture in the North Island, New Zealand, and were compared with regression models with respect to model fit and predictive accuracy. The results indicated that the decision tree models had a better model fit in terms of average squared error (ASE) and a higher percentage of adequately predicted cases in model validation than the corresponding regression models. These decision tree models clearly revealed the relative importance of environmental and management variables in influencing the abundance of these three species. Hill slope was the most significant environmental factor influencing the abundance of ryegrass while soil Olsen P and annual P fertilizer input were the most significant factors influencing the abundance of browntop, and white clover, respectively. Soil Olsen P of approximately 10 μg/g, or a slope of about 10.5° was critical points where the competition between ryegrass and browntop tended to come to an equilibrium. Integrating the decision tree models with a GIS in this study not only facilitated the model development and analyses, but also provided a useful decision support tool in pasture management such as in assisting precision fertilizer placement. The insights obtained from the decision tree models also have important implications for pasture management, for example, it is important to maintain a soil Olsen P higher than 10 μg/g in order to keep the dominance of ryegrass in the hill-pasture.  相似文献
7.
Abstract:  Efficient sampling design in field studies is important for economical and statistical reasons. We compared two ways to distribute sampling effort over an area, either randomly or subjectively. We searched for red-listed saproxylic (wood-living) beetles in 30 spruce stands in boreal Sweden by sifting wood from dead trees. We randomly selected positions within each stand with a geographic positioning system and sampled the nearest dead tree (random sample). In the same stand we also sampled dead trees that, based on literature, were likely to host such species (subjective sampling). The subjective sampling (two to five samples per stand, depending on stand size) was compared with the higher, random sampling effort (fixed level of 12 samples/stand). Subjective sampling was significantly more efficient. Red-listed species were found in 36% of the subjective samples and in 16% of the random samples. Nevertheless, the larger random effort resulted in a comparable number of red-listed species per stand and in 13 detected species in total (vs. 12 species with subjective sampling). Random sampling was less efficient, but provided an unbiased alternative more suitable for statistical purposes, as needed in, for example, monitoring programs. Moreover, new species-specific knowledge can be gained through random searches.  相似文献
8.
In this paper some properties and analytic expressions regarding the Poisson lognormal distribution such as moments, maximum likelihood function and related derivatives are discussed. The author provides a sharp approximation of the integrals related to the Poisson lognormal probabilities and analyzes the choice of the initial values in the fitting procedure. Based on these he describes a new procedure for carrying out the maximum likelihood fitting of the truncated Poisson lognormal distribution. The method and results are illustrated on real data. The computer program for calculations is freely available.
Rudolf IzsákEmail:
  相似文献
9.
Abstract:  The task of measuring the decline of global biodiversity and instituting changes to halt and reverse this downturn has been taken up in response to the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 target. It is an undertaking made more difficult by the complex nature of biodiversity and the consequent difficulty in accurately gauging its depletion. In the Living Planet Index, aggregated population trends among vertebrate species indicate the rate of change in the status of biodiversity, and this index can be used to address the question of whether or not the 2010 target has been achieved. We investigated the use of generalized additive models in aggregating large quantities of population trend data, evaluated potential bias that results from collation of existing trends, and explored the feasibility of disaggregating the data (e.g., geographically, taxonomically, regionally, and by thematic area). Our results show strengths in length and completeness of data, little evidence of bias toward threatened species, and the possibility of disaggregation into meaningful subsets. Limitations of the data set are still apparent, in particular the dominance of bird data and gaps in tropical-species population coverage. Population-trend data complement the longer-term, but more coarse-grained, perspectives gained by evaluating species-level extinction rates. To measure progress toward the 2010 target, indicators must be adapted and strategically supplemented with existing data to generate meaningful indicators in time. Beyond 2010, it is critical a strategy be set out for the future development of indicators that will deal with existing data gaps and that is intricately tied to the goals of future biodiversity targets.  相似文献
10.
Abstract:  Analyses of species' population losses typically show a dichotomy between strongly affected, rare, and localized species and apparently unaffected, common, and widespread species. We analyzed 16 years (1992–2007) of butterfly transect count data from The Netherlands in a reevaluation of the trends of common, widespread species. Fifty-five percent (11 of 20 species) of these species suffered severe declines in distribution and abundance. Overall, cumulative butterfly abundance declined by around 30%. Some of the species in decline used to be omnipresent in gardens and parks, and 2 of the species were previously considered agricultural pests. Based on their declines over the last 16 years, 2 of the 20 species ( Lasiommata megera and Gonepteryx rhamni ) reached endangered status in The Netherlands under the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) population-decline criterion, and 2 species ( Inachis io and Thymelicus lineola ) met vulnerable criterion. Butterflies in farmland, urban, and particularly woodland areas showed the largest decline in species abundance. The abundance of species associated with vegetation types found mainly in nature reserves (dunes, heathland, and, to a lesser extent, seminatural grassland) increased or remained stable. The decline of widespread species requires additional conservation strategies in the wider landscape.  相似文献
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