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1.
铜陵市铜尾矿土壤动物群落生态研究   总被引:11,自引:2,他引:9  
对安徽省铜陵市铜尾矿地6种生境中土壤动物群落进行野外调查和室内分析,研究不同弃置堆放时间的铜尾矿地土壤的动物群落结构及其与尾矿基质理化性质、植被状况等生境条件之间的关系。结果表明,尾矿堆放时间、区位地貌和植被状况的不同,尾矿基质的理化性质发生变化,导致土壤动物的种类组成和数量分布具有明显差异。土壤动物在土体中的表聚性强,绝大部分集中分布于A层(0~5cm);土壤的物理性质越稳定,土壤动物越丰富;土壤肥力越高,土壤动物越丰富多样。即尾矿地土壤的生境条件越优越,土壤动物群落的物种丰富度越大,个体数量分布越多,群落多样性越高。这些研究结论为尾矿区的生态修复和可持续利用提供了参考依据。  相似文献
2.
Abstract:  Ecological change is often hard to document because of a lack of reliable baseline data. Several recent then-versus-now surveys of temperate forest and grassland communities demonstrate losses of local plant species, but most are based on data from a single site. We resurveyed understory communities in 62 upland forest stands in northern Wisconsin (U.S.A.) for which quantitative baseline data exist from 50 years ago. These stands are within a largely unfragmented region but vary in species composition and successional stage. We collected data on changes in (1) total and native species richness, (2) the ratio of exotic to native species, (3) the relative abundance of habitat generalists, and (4) community similarity among sites. We also compared how these rates of change varied over time. Over the past 50 years, native species density declined an average of 18.5% at the 20-m2 scale, whereas the ratio of exotic species to native species increased at 80% of all sites. Habitat generalists increased, and habitat specialists declined, accounting in part for an 8.7% rise in average similarity in species composition among sites. Most of these changes cannot be related to succession, habitat loss, or invasion by exotic species. Areas without deer hunting showed the greatest declines in native species density, with parks and research natural areas faring no better than unprotected stands. Animal-pollinated and animal-dispersed species also declined, particularly at unhunted sites. These results demonstrate the power of quantitative multistand data for assessing ecological change and identify overabundant deer as a key driver of community change. Because maintaining forest habitats alone fails to preserve plant diversity at local scales, local biotic simplification seems likely to continue in the region unless active efforts are taken to protect diversity.  相似文献
3.
铜尾矿复垦后土壤微生物活性及其群落功能多样性研究   总被引:10,自引:2,他引:8  
刘爱民  黄为一 《生态环境》2005,14(6):876-879
对安徽铜陵五公里尾矿区三叶草复垦后的土壤微生物活性和群落的功能多样性研究表明,复垦后每克土壤微生物细菌数已达2.3×107个,并存在一定量耐Cu2 、Cd2 、Zn2 、Cr6 、Pb2 、Ni2 的菌株,但种类少,主要为芽孢杆菌属、假单胞菌属和短杆菌属。BIOLOG测试结果显示,铜镉重金属离子的复合污染使土壤微生物群落丰富度降低;外源耐铜镉微生物菌剂的添加使尾矿区土壤微生物群落代谢剖面(AWCD)变化明显,提高微生物对单一碳源底物的利用能力,增加利用不同碳底物的微生物数量,减轻了重金属污染引起的土壤微生物群落功能多样性的下降,为尾矿区生境加速恢复提供一条有效途径。  相似文献
4.
4种草对铅锌尾矿污染土壤重金属的抗性与吸收特性   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
盆栽试验的结果表明,高羊毛、早熟禾、黑麦草、紫花苜蓿在纯尾矿污染土壤或经处理的尾矿污染土壤上都能生长,但在处理的土壤上生长的植物长势明显优于对照,其中紫花苜蓿的生物量所受影响比其他几种草坪草更大,说明其重金属抗性低于其他几种植物。单位面积上 4 种植物体内重金属质量分数高低均为 w(Zn)>w(Pb)>w(Cu)>w(Cd),但每种植物对 Cd、Pb、Zn 和 Cu 的吸收质量分数和分布均不相同,一般为根系质量分数大于茎叶。加入改良剂(CaCO3)和有机肥(菜枯)使生长在铅锌尾矿污染土壤上的 4 种草坪草生物量显著增加,植物体中的 Cd、Pb、Zn 质量分数下降,但 Cu 质量分数反而上升,结果单位面积上草坪草吸收各重金属元素的量均有所增加,可见利用改良措施与草坪草相结合的方法来修复重金属污染土壤具有可行性。  相似文献
5.
Abstract:  The lack of management experience at the landscape scale and the limited feasibility of experiments at this scale have increased the use of scenario modeling to analyze the effects of different management actions on focal species. However, current modeling approaches are poorly suited for the analysis of viability in dynamic landscapes. Demographic (e.g., metapopulation) models of species living in these landscapes do not incorporate the variability in spatial patterns of early successional habitats, and landscape models have not been linked to population viability models. We link a landscape model to a metapopulation model and demonstrate the use of this model by analyzing the effect of forest management options on the viability of the Sharp-tailed Grouse (  Tympanuchus phasianellus ) in the Pine Barrens region of northwestern Wisconsin (U.S.A.). This approach allows viability analysis based on landscape dynamics brought about by processes such as succession, disturbances, and silviculture. The landscape component of the model (LANDIS) predicts forest landscape dynamics in the form of a time series of raster maps. We combined these maps into a time series of patch structures, which formed the dynamic spatial structure of the metapopulation component (RAMAS). Our results showed that the viability of Sharp-tailed Grouse was sensitive to landscape dynamics and demographic variables such as fecundity and mortality. Ignoring the landscape dynamics gave overly optimistic results, and results based only on landscape dynamics (ignoring demography) lead to a different ranking of the management options than the ranking based on the more realistic model incorporating both landscape and demographic dynamics. Thus, models of species in dynamic landscapes must consider habitat and population dynamics simultaneously.  相似文献
6.
重庆都市圈可持续发展面临的主要生态环境问题与对策   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
对重庆都市圈生态环境问题进行了详细的分析;结合都市圈可持续发展和三峡水库安全运行的需求,提出了加大都市圈生态环境建设力度和绿地景观整治工程,优化产业结构与布局,扶持循环经济和生态环保产业发展,控制主城区规模、积极发展周边卫星城市,增加环保投入、加强重点环保基础设施建设、实施"净空"和"碧水"工程,建立都市圈生态环境信息管理系统和预警系统、实施都市圈生态系统管理等8条治理途径与措施。  相似文献
7.
锡矿尾矿库土壤-食用马铃薯和豌豆中重金属污染状况   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
通过对云南个旧锡矿尾矿库土壤和作物中重金属含量分布特征的初步研究,结果表明尾矿库内作物的根际土壤中Pb、As和Cu含量严重超过国家土壤二级标准(GB15168-1995),污染指数分别为41-49、158-173和22-29,均属重度污染.生长在尾矿库内的作物也受到重金属的不同程度污染,马铃薯(Solanaceae Solanum Tuberosum)和豌豆(Pisum Sativum Linn)的食用部分Pb、As和Cu的含量与国家食品卫生标准上限值相比.高达152和38.5倍、17.4和1.2倍、2和0.95倍.尽管土壤中Sn含量很高,但作物中Sn含量正常,表明Sn未通过土壤-作物系统而进入矿区食物链中.因此应根据尾矿库中土壤的重金属地球化学分布特征.对其进行针对性地修复,避免在尾矿库内种植作物以减少矿区重金属污染在食物链中的扩散.  相似文献
8.
Abstract:  In large parts of North America and Europe, deer overabundance threatens forest plant diversity. Few researchers have examined its effects on invertebrate assemblages. In a natural experiment on Haida Gwaii (British Columbia, Canada), where Sitka black-tailed deer ( Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis ) were introduced, we compared islands with no deer, with deer for fewer than 20 years, and with deer for more than 50 years. We sampled invertebrates in three habitat categories: forest edge vegetation below the browse line, forest interior vegetation below the browse line, and forest interior litter. In forest edge vegetation, invertebrate abundance and species density decreased with increasing length of browsing history. In forest interior vegetation, decrease was significant only on islands with more than 50 years of browsing. Insect abundance in the vegetation decreased eightfold and species density sixfold on islands browsed for more than 50 years compared with islands without deer. Primary consumers were most affected. Invertebrates from the litter showed little or no variation related to browsing history. We attributed the difference between vegetation-dwelling and litter-dwelling invertebrates to differences in the effect of browsing on their habitat. In the layer below the browse line deer progressively removed the habitat. The extent of litter habitat was not affected, but its quality changed. We recommend more attention be given to the effect of overabundant ungulates on forest invertebrate conservation with a focus on edge and understory vegetation in addition to litter habitat.  相似文献
9.
铜尾矿对5种豆科植物根系生长的影响   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2  
针对铜陵市铜尾矿废弃地的复垦,选用了5种乡土豆科植物在5种不同的尾矿改良方式上进行盆栽试验。5种供试物种为:大豆(Glycine max)、赤豆(Phaseolus angularis)、赤小豆(P.calcaratus)、绿豆(P.radiatus)、山绿豆(P.mininus)。盆栽基质是以尾矿与正常土壤按体积100:0、75:25、50:50、25:75、0:100比例混合而成,分别标记为:TAl00、TA75、TA50、TA25、TA0005种豆科植物生长时间为70d。结果发现:随铜尾矿在混合基质中比例的增加,5种豆科植物根系的主根长逐渐变短、根系一级侧根的数目逐渐减少;铜尾矿对5种豆科植物根瘤的形成产生抑制作用,特别是山绿豆和绿豆在全尾矿的基质上,无根瘤生成;地下根部的生物量表现为随着尾矿含量比例的增加。地下部分的生物量逐渐下降,但根冠比表现为随尾矿含量比例的增加而增加;植物对铜尾矿中铜的积累,主要含集中根部,地上部分与地下部分差异明显。  相似文献
10.
典型铜尾矿库周边土壤重金属复合污染特征   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
应用了Hakanson潜在生态风险指数法、相关分析法、主成分分析法对德兴铜矿尾砂库周边土壤Cu、Zn、Ni、Pb、Cr和Cd复合污染特征进行研究,定量确定了铜尾矿库潜在生态风险程度、主要污染因子和潜在生态风险因子。结果表明:铜矿尾矿库周边土壤受到不同程度的重金属污染,该地区平均潜在生态风险污染指数超过600,具有极高的潜在生态风险;各重金属潜在生态风险参数由高至低顺序为Cd、Cu、Pb、Ni、Cr、Zn,其中Cd为主要潜在生态风险因子。进一步通过主成分分析法研究了重金属的污染特性,发现前3个主成分贡献率分别为:65.033%、18.825%、6.243%,第一主成分反映了Zn、Ni、cr的信息,第二主成分反映了Cu和Cd的信息,第三主成分反映Pb的信息。  相似文献
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