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1.
溶解氧对河流底泥中三氮释放的影响   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
作为内源污染的底泥沉积物中营养物的释放引起了越来越多的关注。通过大型静态土柱模拟实验,研究氮在上覆水和孔隙水中的分布特性和释放特性。在控制氧气条件、底泥有机质含量和粒径大小的条件下,连续观测氨态氮、亚硝态氮和硝态氮的浓度及其垂向分布特性。结果发现:时间分布上,通氧条件明显影响水体底泥中三氮释放与反硝化作用达到平衡的时间;垂向分布上,三期实验的上覆水的无机氮以氨态氮为主,不同的通氧条件下,各柱的孔隙水的三氮浓度比上覆水高,且三氮在沉积物中随深度增加而增加;氨态氮和硝态氮浓度则以孔隙水的为高,随深度增加而增加;低溶解氧水平加快底泥释放氨氮速度和增大释放量。  相似文献
2.
采用原位强化生物修复技术对某区块石油污染土壤进行为期16个月的生物修复,考察了处置后污染土壤理化性质、微生物学特性以及石油烃组成的纵向分布特征。实验结果表明,经过修复后各土层的石油烃去除率是表层土IN-3(50.42%)>中层土IN-2(23.54%)>底层土IN-1(10.51%);IN-1处于缺氧环境,存在硫酸盐还原和反硝化作用,使得土壤pH值从7.86±0.03降低至7.27±0.03,土壤总氮从2.53±0.13 g/kg降低至0.77±0.04 g/kg;厌氧菌的种群数量是IN-1(10.43±0.71×104 CFU/g)>IN-3(6.74±0.39×104CFU/g)>IN-2(5.15±0.42×104 CFU/g),放线菌数量与石油烃含量显著负相关(r=-0.989, p=0.011<0.05);IN-3对饱和份和芳香份的降解率最高,分别达到了70.27%和54.52%,远高于IN-2和IN-1;模拟蒸馏结果表明,IN-3正构烷烃得到了很大程度的去除,缺氧的IN-1对正构烷烃去除得较少;厌氧菌数量与胶质和沥青质去除率之间成正相关关系,对于污染源较为分散的污染区域,采用原位生物强化修复时可以考虑引入厌氧修复。  相似文献
3.
In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the North China Plain, maize roots do not extend beyond 1.2 m in the vertical soil profile, but wheat roots can reach up to 2.0 m. Increases in soil nitrate content at maize harvest and significant reductions after winter wheat harvest were observed in the 1.4-2.0 m depth under field conditions. The recovery of 15N isotope (calcium nitrate) from various (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 m) soil depths showed that deep-rooting winter wheat could use soil nitrate up to the 2.0 m depth. This accounted partially, for the reduced nitrate in the 1.4-2.0 m depth of the soil after harvest of wheat in the rotation system.  相似文献
4.
梁滩河沉积物中氮磷垂直分布研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
以梁滩河为研究对象,从上游到下游布置了15个采样点,研究了这些采样点的氮、磷浓度,并以其中几个采样点为主要对象,着重研究了氮、磷在不同深度的垂直分布情况。结果表明,梁滩河的上游左支氮、磷浓度已经较高,而上游右支受污染严重,特别是TN严重超标,说明长期受到生活污水和农业废水的污染。分析其垂直分布规律,TN、TP最高值大多出现在中间层,TP在底层的浓度总体要比表层高,而TN在底层的浓度总体要比表层低。梁滩河沉积物中氮、磷主要集中在中间层,中间层是营养物储存的主要场所。  相似文献
5.
The effect of sediment pollution on benthos was investigated in the vicinity of a large sewage treatment outflow at Incheon North Harbor, Korea. Animal size, vertical distribution and standard community parameters were analyzed along a 3 km transect line (n = 7). Univariate parameters showed a general trend of increasing species diversity with increasing distance from the pollution source. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis led to the clear separation of 3 locational groups, supporting gradient-dependent faunal composition. The innermost location was dominated by small sub-surface dwellers while the outer locations by large mid to deep burrowers. Looking for the size-frequency distribution, most abundance species (Heteromastus filiformis) showed the presence of larger size animals with increasing proximity to the pollution source. Meanwhile, species-specific vertical distributions, regardless of the pollution gradient, indicated that such shifts were due to species replacement resulting from a higher tolerance to pollutants over some species.  相似文献
6.
Ozone measurements along vertical transects in the Alps   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
To investigate the vertical profiles of air pollutants in the boundary layer, aircraft and balloon-born measurements and measurements using a cable car as an instrument platform have been performed in different parts of the Alps. This on-line monitoring of atmospheric pollutants requires expensive and sophisticated techniques. In order to control ambient air quality in remote regions, where no infrastructure like power supply is available, simple instruments are required. The objective of this study, which was coordinated and evaluated by the GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit was first, to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone in different parts of the Alps and secondly, in addition to continuous analyser measurements, to test monitoring by means of two types of passive samplers. The selection of these samplers — one for one week use and another one for two week application — was based on a passive sampler intercomparison done in a preliminary study one year earlier.  相似文献
7.
Vertical emission profiles for Europe based on plume rise calculations   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The vertical allocation of emissions has a major impact on results of Chemistry Transport Models. However, in Europe it is still common to use fixed vertical profiles based on rough estimates to determine the emission height of point sources. This publication introduces a set of new vertical profiles for the use in chemistry transport modeling that were created from hourly gridded emissions calculated by the SMOKE for Europe emission model. SMOKE uses plume rise calculations to determine effective emission heights. Out of more than 40 000 different vertical emission profiles 73 have been chosen by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. These profiles show large differences to those currently used in many emission models. Emissions from combustion processes are released in much lower altitudes while those from production processes are allocated to higher altitudes. The profiles have a high temporal and spatial variability which is not represented by currently used profiles.  相似文献
8.
Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.  相似文献
9.
Vertical distribution of the concentration and composition of some sulfur and oxygen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SOHAHs), such as, fluorene, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene and their alkyl homologues in 10 soil profiles in Beijing have been investigated. The results showed that the concentrations and composition of SOHAHs in topsoil (0-30cm) from different profiles are different. The concentrations of SOHAHs in topsoils are much higher than that in bottom soils where the concentrations are relatively constant. The fingerprints of SOHAHs from same profile are similar in topsoil samples, which are obviously different at the deep part, which suggested that the sources of these compounds are consistent in topsoil and are discriminating between surface and bottom soils. The main sources of SOHAHs in surface soil were fossil fuel combustion, petroleum and wastewater irrigation, while those at deep part were likely derived from the degradation products of soil organic matters.  相似文献
10.
某市南郊水源地土壤四氯化碳污染特征   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
含四氯化碳废水在排放的过程中沿排污渠侧壁和底部的渗漏对土壤造成污染.在对某市南郊受四氯化碳污染的水源地进行钻孔检测的过程中发现,土壤四氯化碳污染的特征:靠近排污沟的钻孔均检测出四氯化碳,而远离排污沟的钻孔则未检出;四氯化碳的垂向分布存在不连续性,且受降雨影响较大;大部分钻孔浅层土壤中基本未检测到四氯化碳,而在3 m以下的土层和基岩中检测到四氯化碳;抽水井的抽水行为导致抽水井附近土壤中四氯化碳明显高于其他钻孔点位检测结果.  相似文献
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