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1.
Multivariate statistical methods, such as cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to analyze the water quality dataset including 13 parameters at 18 sites of the Daliao River Basin from 2003-2005 (8424 observations) to obtain temporal and spatial variations and to identify potential pollution sources. Using Hierarchical CA it is classified 12 months into three periods (first, second and third period) and the 18 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C). Six significant parameters (temperature, pH, DO, BOD(5), volatile phenol and E. coli) were identified by DA for distinguishing temporal or spatial groups, with close to 84.5% correct assignment for temporal variation analysis, while five parameters (DO, NH(4)(+)-N, Hg, volatile phenol and E. coli) were discovered to correctly assign about 73.61% for the spatial variation analysis. PCA is useful in identifying five latent pollution sources for group B and C (oxygen consuming organic pollution, toxic organic pollution, heavy metal pollution, fecal pollution and oil pollution). During the first period, sites received more oxygen consuming organic pollution, toxic organic pollution and heavy metal pollution than those in the other two periods. For group B, sites were mainly affected by oxygen consuming organic pollution and toxic organic pollution during the first period. The level of pollution in the second period was between the other two periods. For group C, sites were mainly affected by oil pollution during the first period and oxygen consuming organic pollution during the third period. Furthermore, source identification of each period for group B and group C provided useful information about seasonal pollution. Sites were mainly affected by fecal pollution in the third period for group B, indicating the character of non-point source pollution. In addition, all the sites were also affected by physical-chemistry pollution. In the second and third period for group B and second period for group C sites were also affected by natural pollution.  相似文献
2.
北方某市环境空气颗粒物中重金属污染状况研究   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:0  
对我国北方某市大气颗粒物的污染状况进行了研究。在主导风向上设置采样点,于冬季、夏季分别采集TSP、PM10、PM2.5 3种不同动力学直径的大气颗粒物。采用ICP-MS对TSP、PM10、PM2.5中的元素浓度进行分析,并对3种不同粒径颗粒物中的10种重金属采用富集因子法进行评价。结果表明,北方某市环境空气颗粒物中富集程度最严重的为Cd、Pb;在采暖期,随着颗粒物粒径变小,Pb、Cd的富集指数呈现逐渐增大的趋势;非采暖期则无此趋势。  相似文献
3.
太湖主要入湖河流排污控制量研究   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
利用2006—2008年的监测数据对太湖主要入湖河流的水环境状况进行了分析,通过对研究区工业污染源、农业污染源和城镇生活污水排污的分布以及入河情况的调查,对各种污染源的入河量进行了计算,根据确定的水质目标,分别计算出主要入湖河流以及区域水系的水环境容量和排污控制量。结果表明:15条主要入湖河流超标现象显著,近3a来污染程度有所波动,N、P污染最为严重。研究区内污染物入河量较大,未接管的生活源污染物入河量所占比重最大,各类污染物均在50%~60%之间;张家港市的污染物入河量最大,各类污染物所占比重达总入河量的18%~20%。研究区内河网密布,水环境容量分布不均匀,望虞河、直湖港、武进港等7条河流水环境容量较大,张家港市区域水环境容量较大。为保证水质达标,研究区内近期共须削减CODCr66554.38t/a、NH4-N8105.71t/a、TP1324.42t/a;远期共须削减CODCr96719.08t/a、NH4-N11541.45t/a、TP1788.71t/a。  相似文献
4.
The Second Songhua River was subjected to a large amount of raw or primary effluent from chemical industries in Jilin city in 1960s to 1970s, resulting in serious mercury pollution. However, an understanding of other trace metal pollution has remained unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate trace metal contamination in the sediment of the river. Bottom sediment samples were taken in the river between Jilin city and Haerbin city in 2005. An uncontaminated sediment profile was taken in the Nen River at the same time. Total concentrations of Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Ti, Mn, V, Sc, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were measured by ICP-MS or ICP-OES, following digestion with various acids. Concentrations of Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in the surface sediments were 5.1–14.7, 18.5–78.9, 2.4–75.4, 7.2–29.0, 13.5–124.4, and 21.8–403.1 mg/kg, respectively, generally decreasing along the course of the river from Jilin city to Haerbin city. Background concentrations of trace metals were reconstructed by geochemical normalization to a conservative element scandium. Results showed that concentrations of Co, Cr, and Ni in the sediment were generally only slightly higher than or equal to their background values, while concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the some sediment samples were significantly higher than their background values. In detail, the sediment at Jilin city was moderately contaminated by Cu, and the sediment of the Second Songhua River was moderately contaminated by Pb and Zn. The top layer (0–10 cm depth) and bottom layers (30–46 cm depth) of one sediment profile at Wukeshu town were generally moderately polluted by Pb and Zn. Synthetically, the surface sediment in the studied river section was classified as natural sediment without ecological risk by the sediment pollution index (SPI) of Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. Only the 30–45 cm depth of the sediment profile at Wukeshu town was classified as low polluted sediment by the SPI of these metals, recording a historical contamination of the river in the 1960s to 1970s. This buried contamination of trace metals might pose a potential risk to water column under disturbance of sediment. Foundation item: The National Basic Research Priorities Program of China (2004CB418502)  相似文献
5.
无锡市机动车尾气污染及防治初探   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
过伟  奚河  吴蔚 《干旱环境监测》2002,16(4):228-229,244
以无锡市市区3种典型道路作为研究对象,通过对道路二侧呼吸带空气中CO、NOx、HC、Pb、TSP等污染物浓度的分析,评述道路交通污染特征和治理效果,从而提出了治理交通污染的对策与建议。  相似文献
6.
The characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), sediments, and hydrophytes from Lake Baiyangdian, a shallow freshwater lake in China were studied. The low-molecular-weight PAHs (2-3 ring PAHs) predominated (61.2 to 84.5%) in all samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of individual PAHs and the ratios of selected PAHs showed that the PAHs in the lake were mainly petrogenic inputs. The solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K(d)) in the water phase was much higher than the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the leaf concentration factor (LCF) was higher than the root concentration factor (RCF) and stem concentration factor (SCF) in plant-sediment phase. Good linear log/log relationships were observed between the equilibrium partitioning coefficient (K(oc)) and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient (K(ow)), between RCF and K(ow), and between LCF and the octanol-air partitioning coefficient (K(oa)). These results indicated that PAHs accumulated more easily in SPM than in submerged aquatic plants, and some low-molecular-weight PAHs could accumulate and be translocated in the lake's media. Media characteristics, contamination sources, and physicochemical properties all affect the partitioning of PAHs among water, SPM, sediments, and hydrophytes.  相似文献
7.
关于对环境监测人才队伍建设的几点思考   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
随着国家对环境保护工作日益重视,环境监测作为环境管理的关键环节和重要基础,其地位逐渐凸显。人才是事业的根本,环境监测事业发展是否顺利取决于5万多名的监测人才队伍如何建设。通过探究环境监测人才队伍发展历程及现状,剖析环境监测人才队伍建设中存在的问题,对环境监测人才队伍健康全面发展提出建议,力求为环境监测更好地服务于环境管理提供坚实的人才保障。  相似文献
8.
三峡175米蓄水期间春季嘉陵江出口段藻类变化   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为认识三峡大坝175m蓄水对春季嘉陵江藻类的影响,开展了春季嘉陵江出口段藻类活动频繁时期的现场调研。结果表明,与2007年春季相比,三峡大坝175m实验性蓄水期间,2009年春季嘉陵江出口段水位上涨、流速减缓、水体容量增大,营养盐受到一定程度稀释;硅藻为嘉陵江出口段绝对优势藻种,其中星肋小环藻与极小冠盘藻为水华藻种,星肋小环藻具有快速增长性,流速变缓不利于硅藻繁殖,致使总藻密度降低,总藻种数增加,其中绿、蓝、硅藻增加百分比较大,藻类多样性增大。  相似文献
9.
自动进样及气体分流技术测定气体中非甲烷总烃   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
缪建军  吴鹏  於香湘 《干旱环境监测》2011,25(4):203-204,F0004
采用自动进样和气体分流技术,双柱双FID检测器气相色谱法测定气体中的非甲烷总烃,实现了非甲烷总烃的连续自动分析,同时一次进样即可得到甲烷和总烃的数据。方法的检出限为0.05 mg/m3,测定的相对标准偏差在0.7%~1.8%内,非甲烷总烃的加标回收率为96.0%~98.5%。与传统手动进样法相比,本方法具有重复性好、操作简单、省时高效等优点,可大大提高气体中非甲烷总烃的分析效率和准确度。  相似文献
10.
An investigation of the behavior and availability of heavy metals (HMs), i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd, based on the analysis of correlation between HMs and physical and chemical properties of coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits in Shanghai, China, has been conducted, in order to reveal the effect of the soil formation and development and the unsuited human activities on the activities and mobility of HMs in agricultural soils. The results showed that (1) the soils still meet the needs of plant growth due to the moderate fertility with a soil texture of silty loam although the content of organic matters is lower, (2) total heavy metal content had a increase trend from the inland area to the coastal area, indicating the impact of alluvial deposits related to the soil formation on the distribution of HMs; (3) a significant positive correlation was found between HMs and some soil properties (i.e., clay content, cation exchange capacity, organic matters, total Phosphorous content, etc.), indicating that the regulation of these properties could give some great effect on the behavior and availability of HMs; (4) the positive correlation among Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd, and between Pb and Cr is very significant, suggesting the most similar, if not the same, origins of HMs; These findings are helpful to the soil remediation, fertility adjustment, and plant cultivation.  相似文献
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