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1.
This research used distal motor latency (DML) and vibration thresholds (VT) to evaluate 84 hand activity and wrist deviation combinations to determine the best association with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Female volunteers, 2 healthy and 2 CTS diagnosed, were age matched and operated a keyboard for 4 hrs a day. Room temperature was 28°C(±2). Beginning DML and VT were taken with a relaxed neutral posture hand. The wrist was deviated in a randomly selected combination, and determinations were taken at 5-min intervals. The trial ended at 20 min or when discomfort was felt. The CTS conditions were discriminated by pain four times, DML once, and VT 14 times. Vibrometry was the most consistent CTS discriminator. The best VT results for wrist positions were obtained with wrist extension and extended extension, whereas the unclenched, clenched, and loaded power grip activities proved to be the most consistent hand activities.  相似文献   
2.
This article presents a study on the effect of different protective gloves (which are commercially available and commonly used in the cold) on manual dexterity in cold environments. The experiments compared statistically four different types of gloves and two different types of gloving (outer or double) at +19 °C and -10 °C. Performance was determined both objectively and subjectively using two manual dexterity tasks: bolt-nut and pick-up tasks. The response measured was the time of performing each task. Statistical analysis showed that all independent factors such as glove type, participant, object size, and temperature had significant effects on the hand cooling reaction. A significant difference in the performance between the gloves was found in the bolt-nut task. It was also found that outer-inner combination gloving may be an approach to use for precision tasks.  相似文献   
3.
Presses are very widely used in industrial and commercial companies and are often the source of serious accidents occurring during operation. Most of the accidents are due to inadequate training of novice operators. Continuous recordings of eye and hand movements of five novice operators and five experienced operators in press operation were made. Significant difference between novice and experienced operators was observed in eye fixation time, eye movement patterns, hand dwell time, and eye-hand coordination. Also, differences were observed in spatial distribution of eye fixations during the die-closing portion of a stroke. There were no significant differences between novice and experienced operators in the eye and the hand movement time. The results could be used as basic data to establish a guide determining the method and training period to train novice operators.  相似文献   
4.
Five variants of mixtures of different synthetic fibres at different area ratios were manufactured into needled nonwovens intended to be used as a filtering material for respiratory protection. Two variants were produced according to an earlier patent, and the contents of the other three was completely new. Samples of the nonwovens were tested for sodium chloride particles penetration and for breathing resistance. The results showed that one variant of a nonwoven, designated PP/PPFM, had very valuable filtering properties and that those properties were stable in time.  相似文献   
5.
An activity analysis method was developed for studying the structure and dynamics of control room operators’ activity during normal operation based on directly observable elements of the operators’ behavior. The method assesses current activity along three dimensions in each 5-min period of the shift. Intensity characterizes arousal level, direction shows whether the activity is directed predominantly at the process control task, at something else, or miscellaneous. Motivation reflects if the activity is driven by intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. A case study is presented, in which 3 morning, 3 afternoon, and 3 night shifts of a Nuclear Power Plant operator crew are involved. The obtained results gave a deeper understanding of the operators’ activity and also revealed an “arousal compensation” tendency.  相似文献   
6.
This study focused on developing a new approach to seated work positions as conducted on 67 office workers who use a Visual Display Terminal (VDT) as a major function of their working day. Muscle tension was measured by surface electromyography (sEMG) while participants were asked to adopt 4 selected working postures. Pain was measured before and after ergonomic intervention on the Nordic scale, which was modified for this study. Adjustable workstations were used to place participants in desired positions during the clinical testing sessions and the extended intervention period. Results indicate the effects of this ergonomic intervention may have positive effects on muscle tension and pain, significant enough to encourage employers to implement training and workstation modifications following these guidelines.  相似文献   
7.
The article reflects on the changing world of work, and the challenges presented to both occupational health and occupational health education. We draw on the 63 preparatory workshops and the international conference in the “Work Life 2000: Quality in Work” program, an initiative of the Swedish Presidency of the European Union. The International Commission on Occupational Health is introduced, with particular concentration on a current practical project initiated by the Department of Health in South Africa, intended to lead to a set of projects, networking for occupational health education in developing countries. The practical initiatives cast light on a new set of issues that arise when occupational health and safety crosses cultural barriers, and previously separate comparative cases are linked.  相似文献   
8.
Research on micropore mufflers was started in the middle of the 1970s. In this article we have summarized and systematized what has been done in the past 20 years. Some expressions, derivations, and calculation curves have been formally modified to make them easier to understand and apply. Some new considerations have been added. The main purpose of this article is to introduce the fundamentals, theories, and calculations that are useful for the design of a micropore muffler. Therefore, we have not included any experiments. Direct and indirect experimental proofs can be found in the given relevant references. Micropore mufflers are grouped into two classes, simple micropore mufflers and expansion micropore mufflers. The latter have additional noise reduction due to flow expansion. Noise reduction and flow are two important aspects that have been discussed in detail.  相似文献   
9.
Subjective rating scales for measuring work demands and individual capabilities to cope with work requirements were developed using the Thurstonian procedure. The scales measure six dimensions of mental workload: mental difficulties, feeling of responsibility, awareness of risk, interpersonal conflicts, monotony, and time pressure. Individual scale results make it possible to assess the level of mental workload understood as a relation between the subjective rating of work demands and individual capabilities in each of the six dimensions. Two versions of scales were prepared: classic and modified ones. To assess the level of reliability of the particular scales, 481 participants were examined twice at a 1-month interval. A procedure to prepare scales for the measurement of other dimensions of mental workload is also presented.  相似文献   
10.
Heat and mechanical protection properties of 6 fabric combinations commonly used in firefighters’ protective clothing were assessed before and after different heat treatment. It was shown that after heat exposure, the values obtained were generally lower than in the original state. The mechanical properties of the materials were more affected by heat than by heat protective properties. In 2 cases, degradation started before a visible change in the material could be observed, which might be potentially dangerous for the end user who will not realize the alteration of the material.  相似文献   
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